Born on November 13

354 Augustine of Hippo an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius , located in Numidia. He is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in the Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are City of God and Confessions
1055 Welf Duke of Carinthia numbered in the genealogy of the Swabian line of the Elder House of Welf, was the duke of Carinthia and margrave of Verona from 1047. He was the only son of Welf II, Count of Altdorf, and Imiza of Luxembourg
1130 Adolf I of Holstein the first Count of Schauenburg from 1106 and the second Count of Holstein from 1111. He made an important contribution to the colonisation and Germanisation of the lands north of the Elbe
1312 Edward III of England noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death. He is one of only six British monarchs to have ruled England or its successor kingdoms for more than fifty years
1486 Johann Eck a German Scholastic theologian and defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation.
1493 William IV Duke of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria from 1508 to 1550, until 1545 together with his younger brother Louis X, Duke of Bavaria. He was born in Munich to Albert IV and Kunigunde of Austria, a daughter of Emperor Frederick III
1504 Philip I Landgrave of Hesse a leading champion of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany.
1559 Albert VII Archduke of Austria the ruling Archduke of Austria for a few months in 1619 and, jointly with his wife, Isabella Clara Eugenia, sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands between 1598 and 1621. Prior to this, he had been a cardinal, archbishop of Toledo, viceroy of Portugal and Governor General of the Habsburg Netherlands. He succeeded his brother Matthias as reigning archduke of Lower and Upper Austria, but abdicated in favor of Ferdinand II the same year, making it the shortest reign in Austrian history
1572 Cyril Lucaris a Greek prelate and theologian, and a native of Candia, Crete. He later became the Greek Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril Lucaris strove for a reform of the Eastern Orthodox Church along Protestant and Calvinist lines. Attempts to bring Calvinism into the Orthodox Church were rejected, and Cyril's actions and motivations remain a matter of debate among the Orthodox
1595 George William Elector of Brandenburg margrave and elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia from 1619 until his death. His reign was marked by ineffective governance during the Thirty Years' War. He was the father of Frederick William, the "Great Elector"
1598 Bartholomeus Breenbergh a Dutch Golden Age painter of Italian and Italianate landscapes, in Rome and Amsterdam.
1599 Otto Christoph von Sparr a Generalfeldmarschall of Brandenburg-Prussia.
1625 William Christoph Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg the second Landgraf of Hesse-Homburg during 1648-1669.
1663 Árni Magnússon an Icelandic scholar and collector of manuscripts. He assembled the Arnamagnæan Manuscript Collection
1686 Eleonora Luisa Gonzaga the Duchess of Rovere and Montefeltro as the wife of Francesco Maria de' Medici. She was the only child of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Guastalla and Sabbioneta and his second wife, Maria Vittoria Gonzaga. She did not bear any children
1688 Noël-Antoine Pluche a French priest. He is now known for his Spectacle de la nature, a most popular work of natural history
1699 Jan Zach a Czech composer, violinist and organist. Although he was a gifted and versatile composer capable of writing both in Baroque and Classical idioms, his eccentric personality led to numerous conflicts and lack of steady employment since about 1756
1710 Charles Simon Favart a French dramatist.
1715 Dorothea Erxleben the first female medical doctor in Germany.
1718 John Montagu 4th Earl of Sandwich a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather, Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich, as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten. During his life he held various military and political offices, including Postmaster General, First Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary of State for the Northern Department, but is perhaps best known for the claim that he was the eponymous inventor of the sandwich
1736 Józef Mikołaj Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble.
1745 Valentin Haüy the founder, in 1784, of the first school for the blind, the Royal Institution for the Young Blind in Paris. In 1819, Louis Braille entered this school
1745 Richard Paul Jodrell a classical scholar and playwright.
1753 Ippolito Pindemonte an Italian poet. He was educated at the Collegio di San Carlo in Modena, but otherwise spent most of his life in Verona
1757 Archibald Alison (author) a Scottish episcopalian priest and essayist.
1760 Jiaqing Emperor the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820.
1761 John Moore (British Army officer) a British soldier and General, also known as Moore of Corunna. He is best known for his military training reforms and for his death at the Battle of Corunna, in which he defeated a French army under Marshal Soult during the Peninsular War
1764 Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern (1764-1834) a German noblewoman member of the House of Stolberg and by her two marriages Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen and Württemberg.
1767 Bernhard Romberg a German cellist and composer.
1768 Karoline von Manderscheid-Blankenheim a princess consort of Liechtenstein; married in 16 November 1783 to prince Alois I of Liechtenstein.
1773 Jean-Baptiste Leschenault de La Tour a French botanist and ornithologist.
1775 Rémi Joseph Isidore Exelmans a distinguished French soldier of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as well as a political figure of the following period.
1780 Ranjit Singh the founder of the Sikh Empire, which came to power in the Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. The empire, based in the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849. It was forged, on the foundations of the Dal Khalsa, under the leadership of Ranjit Singh from a collection of autonomous Sikh Misls. Ranjit Singh was succeeded by his son, Kharak Singh
1782 Esaias Tegnér a Swedish writer, professor of Greek language, and bishop. He was during the 19th century regarded as the father of modern poetry in Sweden, mainly through the national romantic epos Frithjof's Saga. He has been called Sweden's first modern man. Much is known about him, and he also wrote openly about himself
1785 Lady Caroline Lamb a British aristocrat and novelist, best known for her affair with Lord Byron in 1812. Her husband was William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, who later became Prime Minister. However, she was never the Viscountess Melbourne because she died before Melbourne succeeded to the peerage; hence, she is known to history as Lady Caroline Lamb
1801 Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria a Princess of Bavaria and later Queen consort of Prussia.
1801 Amalie Auguste of Bavaria a Princess of Bavaria and Queen of Saxony.
1806 Emilia Plater a Polish–Lithuanian noblewoman and revolutionary from the lands of the partitioned Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Raised in a patriotic Polish tradition, she fought in the November 1830 Uprising, during which she raised a small unit, participated in several engagements, and received the rank of captain in the Polish-Lithuanian insurgent forces. Near the end of the Uprising, she fell ill and died
1809 John A. Dahlgren a United States Navy leader. He headed the Union Navy's ordnance department during the American Civil War and designed several different kinds of guns and cannons that were considered part of the reason the Union won the war. For these achievements, Dahlgren became known as the "father of American naval ordnance." He reached the rank of rear admiral
1811 Yuri Karlovich Arnold a Russian composer, musicologist, music critic, choral conductor, theorist and music educator. There is some speculation that he was employed by the tsarist police and that some of the writings attributed to him were actually written by Peshenin, who was paid to keep it a secret. Also that some of his theories on the history of Russian church music are now seen as false. Among his students were Allemanov and Yu Mel’gunov
1813 Petar II Petrović-Njegoš considered responsible for the modernization of Montenegro.
1814 Joseph Hooker a career United States Army officer, achieving the rank of major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Although he served throughout the war, usually with distinction, Hooker is best remembered for his stunning defeat by Confederate General Robert Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863
1817 Louis James Alfred Lefébure-Wély a French organist and composer. He played a major role in the development of the French symphonic organ style and was closely associated with the organ builder Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, inaugurating many new Cavaillé-Coll organs
1821 William Hillebrand a German physician. He traveled the world, including over 20 years in the Hawaiian islands. In 1850, Hillebrand lived at what is now Foster Botanical Garden in Honolulu. He also became known as a botanist
1826 Jovan Đorđević a Serbian man of letters, the co-founder of the Novi Sad Serbian National Theatre in 1861; the National Theatre in Belgrade in 1868; and the Academy of Dramatic Art in 1870. He is famous for writing the lyrics to the Serbian National anthem Bože pravde in 1872
1831 Kārlis Hūns a Baltic-German history, genre and landscape painter. His name is rendered in a confusing variety of ways, too numerous to list here
1833 Edwin Booth a famous 19th-century American actor who toured throughout America and the major capitals of Europe, performing Shakespearean plays. In 1869 he founded Booth's Theatre in New York, a spectacular theatre that was quite modern for its time. Some theatrical historians consider him the greatest American actor, and the greatest Hamlet, of the 19th century. However, his achievements are often overshadowed by his relationship with his brother, John Wilkes Booth, the man who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln
1834 Nikolai Stoletov a general in the Imperial Russian Army. He was the brother of noted physicist Aleksandr Stoletov
1836 Jarosław Dąbrowski a Polish left-wing independence activist and general. Supporter of the Paris Commune.. He was a participant in the January Uprising and was one of the leaders of the "Red" faction among the insurrectionists as a member of the Central National Committee and the Provisional National Government
1837 James T. Rapier an attorney, a planter and a politician; he served as a United States Representative from 1873 until 1875. Born free, he was educated in Canada and admitted to the bar. He became a national figure in the Republican Party after the Civil War and was one of Alabama's three blacks elected as congressmen during Reconstruction. He was one of seven blacks serving in the 43rd Congress. They each testified in 1874 for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which guaranteed access to accommodations