Born on November 14

940 Abu'l-Fadl al-Bal'ami a Samanid statesman, who served as the vizier of Nasr II from 922 to 938.
1487 John III of Pernstein High Treasurer of Moravia from 1506 and 1516 and Landeshauptmann of Moravia from 1515 to 1519 and from 1526 to 1528 and Governor of Moravia from 1530 to 1532. From 1537 to 1548, he was Count of Kladsko and pledge lord of the County of Kladsko
1567 Maurice Prince of Orange sovereign Prince of Orange from 1618, on the death of his eldest half brother, Philip William, Prince of Orange. Maurice was stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from earliest 1585 until his death in 1625
1601 John Eudes a French missionary and priest, who founded the Congregation of Jesus and Mary and the Order of Our Lady of Charity, and was the author of the propers for the Mass and Divine Office of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. He has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
1635 Old Tom Parr an Englishman who was said to have lived for 152 years at his home in Banterbury. He is often referred to simply as Old Parr or Old Tom Parr
1663 Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow a German musician and composer of vocal and keyboard music.
1668 Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt an Austrian baroque architect and military engineer who designed stately buildings and churches and whose work had a profound influence on the architecture of the Habsburg Empire in the eighteenth century. After studying in Rome under Carlo Fontana, he constructed fortresses for Prince Eugene of Savoy during his Italian campaigns, becoming his favorite architect. In 1700 he became court engineer in Vienna, and in 1711 was named head of the court department of building. He became court architect in 1723. His designs for palaces, estates, gardens, churches, chapels, and villas were widely imitated, and his architectural principles spread throughout central and southeast Europe. Among his more important works are Palais Schwarzenberg, Peter's Church, and Belvedere in Vienna, Savoy Castle in Ráckeve, Schönborn Palace in Göllersdorf, and Schloss Hof
1719 Leopold Mozart a German composer, conductor, teacher, and violinist. Mozart is best known today as the father and teacher of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and for his violin textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule
1742 Eduard Sandifort a Dutch physician and anatomist. He received his medical doctorate degree from Leiden University in 1763, and worked as a general practitioner in The Hague. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Swedish, and Italian. He became a professor of anatomy and surgery in 1771 at Leiden University. His most important writings are Observationes Anatomico-pathologicæ , Excercitationes anatomicoacademicæ , and the Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavæ , which was finished by his son, Gerard Sandifort. Sandifort translated Nils Rosén von Rosenstein's Underrättelser om barn-sjukdomar och deras botemedel to Dutch in 1768. Sandifort was elected in 1768 as a foreign member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Stockholm
1743 Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne a leader of the French Protestants and a moderate French revolutionary.
1745 Dominique Villars an 18th-century French botanist.
1751 Capel Lofft an English lawyer, minor political figure and miscellaneous writer.
1755 Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach a German legal scholar. His major work was a reform of the Bavarian penal code which became a model for several other countries
1765 Robert Fulton widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steamboat. In 1800, he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to design the "Nautilus", which was the first practical submarine in history. He is also credited with inventing some of the world's earliest naval torpedoes for use by the British Royal Navy
1771 Marie François Xavier Bichat best remembered as the father of modern histology and descriptive anatomy. Despite working without a microscope, he was the first to introduce the notion of tissues as distinct entities, and maintained that diseases attacked tissues rather than whole organs or the entire body, causing a revolution in anatomical pathology
1773 Stapleton Cotton 1st Viscount Combermere a British Army officer, diplomat and politician. As a junior officer he took part in the Flanders Campaign, in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and in the suppression of Robert Emmet's insurrection in 1803. He commanded a cavalry brigade in Sir Arthur Wellesley's Army before being given overall command of the cavalry in the latter stages of the Peninsular War. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief, Ireland and then Commander-in-Chief, India. In the latter role he stormed Bharatpur—a fort which previously had been deemed impregnable
1774 Gaspare Spontini an Italian opera composer and conductor.
1776 Henri Dutrochet a French physician, botanist and physiologist. He is best known for his investigation into osmosis
1777 Johann Ludwig Christian Gravenhorst a German entomologist, herpetologist and zoologist.
1777 Nathaniel Claiborne a nineteenth-century politician from Virginia. He was the brother of William Charles Cole Claiborne, the nephew of Thomas Claiborne, the uncle of John Francis Hamtramck Claiborne and the great-great-great granduncle Marie Corinne Morrison Claiborne Boggs and Claiborne de Borda Pell
1778 Johann Nepomuk Hummel an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist. His music reflects the transition from the Classical to the Romantic musical era
1779 Adam Oehlenschläger a Danish poet and playwright. He introduced romanticism into Danish literature
1783 Gaspard Gourgaud a French soldier, prominent in the Napoleonic wars.
1794 George Grote an English political radical and classical historian. He is now best known for his major work, the voluminous History of Greece
1797 Charles Lyell a British lawyer and the foremost geologist of his day. He is best known as the author of Principles of Geology, which popularised James Hutton's concepts of uniformitarianism – the idea that the Earth was shaped by the same processes still in operation today. Principles of Geology also challenged theories popularized by George Cuvier, which were the most accepted and circulated ideas about geology in England at the time. Lyell was also one of the first to believe that the world is older than 300 million years, on the basis of its geological anomalies. Lyell was a close and influential friend of Charles Darwin
1799 Auguste Barbereau a French composer and music theorist. He entered the Conservatoire de Paris in 1810 and was awarded numerous times. He was awarded with the Prix de Rome in 1824 for his cantata Agnes Sorel, with text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard, publishing it shortly thereafter. He conducted many orchestras in several theaters, especially the Teatre Italià between 1836-38
1802 August Pott a German pioneer in linguistics.
1803 Jacob Abbott an American writer of children's books.
1804 Heinrich Dorn a German conductor, composer, and journalist. He was born in Königsberg , where he studied piano, singing, and composition. Later, he studied in Berlin with Ludwig Berger, Bernhard Klein, and Carl Friedrich Zelter. His first opera, Rolands Knappen, was produced in 1826, and was a success. Around this time, he became co-editor of the Berliner allgemeine Muzikzeitung
1805 Fanny Mendelssohn a German pianist and composer, the sister of the composer Felix Mendelssohn and granddaughter of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. She was the grandmother of the philosopher Paul Hensel and the mathematician Kurt Hensel
1806 Charles Hotham Lieutenant-governor and, later, Governor of Victoria, Australia from 22 June 1854 to 10 November 1855.
1807 Auguste Laurent a French chemist who helped in the founding of organic chemistry with his discoveries of anthracene, phthalic acid, and carbolic acid.
1810 Hector Lefuel a French architect, best known for the completion of the Palais du Louvre, including the reconstruction of the Pavillon de Flore after a disastrous fire.
1812 Aleardo Aleardi an Italian poet who belonged to the so-called Neo-romanticists.
1812 Maria Cristina of Savoy the first Queen consort of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies. She died as a result of childbirth
1814 Albert Wolff (sculptor) a German sculptor.
1823 Friedrich Konrad Müller a German poet, journalist and physician. He called himself Müller von der Werra
1828 James B. McPherson a career United States Army officer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was killed at the Battle of Atlanta, the second highest ranking Union officer killed during the war
1828 Charles de Freycinet a French statesman and four times Prime Minister during the Third Republic. He also served an important term as Minister of War. He belonged to the Opportunist Republicans faction
1829 Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer a Baltic German anatomist who discovered stellate macrophage cells that bear his name.
1830 Conrad Bursian a German philologist and archaeologist.
1834 Gustav Wilhelm Wolff a German-British shipbuilder and politician. Born in Hamburg, he moved to Liverpool in 1849 to live with his uncle, Gustav Christian Schwabe. After serving his apprenticeship in Manchester, Wolff was employed as a draughtsman in Hyde, Greater Manchester, before being employed by the shipbuilder Edward Harland in Belfast as his personal assistant. In 1861, Wolff became a partner at Harland's firm, forming Harland and Wolff. Outside shipbuilding, Wolff served as a Belfast Harbour Commissioner. He also founded the Belfast Ropeworks, served as Member of Parliament for Belfast East for 18 years and as a member of the Conservative and Unionist Party and Irish and Ulster Unionist parties
1838 August Šenoa a Croatian novelist, critic, editor, poet, and dramatist.
1840 Claude Monet a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant , which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris
1842 Friedrich Erismann a Swiss ophthalmologist and hygienist born in Gontenschwil, canton of Aargau.
1845 Ulisse Dini an Italian mathematician and politician, born in Pisa. He is known for his contribution to real analysis, partly collected in his book "Fondamenti per la teorica delle funzioni di variabili reali"
1847 Alexander Solovtsov a Russian chess master.
1847 Catherine Dolgorukov the daughter of Prince Michael Dolgorukov and Vera Vishnevskaya. She was a long-time mistress of Tsar Alexander II of Russia and later, as his morganatic wife, was created Princess Yurievskaya
1848 Zamfir Arbore a Bukovinan-born Romanian political activist originally active in the Russian Empire, also known for his work as an amateur historian, geographer and ethnographer. Arbore debuted in left-wing politics from early in life, gained an intimate knowledge of the Russian revolutionary milieu, and participated in both nihilist and Narodnik conspiracies. Self-exiled to Switzerland, he became a member of the International Workingmen's Association. Arbore was mostly active as an international anarchist and a disciple of Mikhail Bakunin, but eventually parted with the latter to create his independent group, the Revolutionary Community. He was subsequently close to the anarchist geographer Élisée Reclus, who became his new mentor
1848 Sándor Wekerle a Hungarian politician who served three times as prime minister.