Died on November 14

669 Fujiwara no Kamatari a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician during the Asuka period. Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan and became the founder of the Fujiwara clan. He, along with the Mononobe clan, was a supporter of Shinto and fought the introduction of Buddhism to Japan. The Soga clan, defenders of Buddhism in the Asuka period, defeated Kamatari and the Mononobe clan and Buddhism became the dominant religion of the imperial court. Kamatari, along with Prince Naka no Ōe, later Emperor Tenji , launched the Taika Reform of 645, which centralized and strengthened the central government. Just before his death he received the honorific of Taishōkan and the surname Fujiwara from the Emperor Tenji, thus establishing the Fujiwara clan
683 Yazid I the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. Yazid was the Caliph as appointed by his father Muawiyah I and ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE
976 Emperor Taizu of Song the founding emperor of imperial China's Song Dynasty, reigning from 960 until his death. A distinguished military general under the Later Zhou, he came to power by staging a coup d'état and forcing the young Emperor Gong of Later Zhou to abdicate power
1180 Lorcán Ua Tuathail Archbishop of Dublin at the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland. He played a prominent role in the Irish Church Reform Movement of the 12th century and mediated between the parties during and after the invasion. He was canonised in 1225 by Pope Honorius III
1263 Alexander Nevsky the Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most trying times in the country's history. Commonly regarded as the key figure of medieval Rus', Alexander was the grandson of Vsevolod the Big Nest and rose to legendary status on account of his military victories over the German and Swedish invaders while agreeing to pay tribute to the powerful Golden Horde
1267 Casimir I of Kuyavia Prince of Kujawy, Mazovia and Wielkopolska, from 1233 until his death. He was the son of Konrad I of Masovia, High Duke of Poland, and his wife Agafia of Rus
1328 Ragibagh Khan Emperor Tianshun of Yuan a son of Yesün Temür who was briefly installed to the throne of the Yuan Dynasty in Shangdu in 1328. Although he should have been the seventh ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in succession to his father Yesün Temür Khan, or Emperor Taiding, he was dethroned by his rival who was installed by coup before Ragibagh's succession. He is regarded as the 11th Great Khan of the Mongols in Mongolia
1359 Gregory Palamas a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later the Archbishop of Thessaloniki known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. The teachings embodied in his writings defending Hesychasm against the attack of Barlaam are sometimes referred to as Palamism, his followers as Palamites. Palamas is venerated as a Saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Some Byzantine Catholic Churches, which are in communion with Rome, venerate him in the liturgy, and he has been called a saint and has been repeatedly cited as a great theological writer by Pope John Paul Some of his writings are collected in the Philokalia. The second Sunday of the Great Lent is called the Sunday of Gregory Palamas in those Churches that commemorate him according to the Byzantine Rite. He also has a feast day on November 14
1391 Nikola Tavelić a saint of the Catholic Church. This Franciscan missionary, who died a martyr's death in Jerusalem, was the first Croatian saint
1442 Yolande of Aragon a throne claimant and titular queen regnant of Aragon, titular queen consort of Naples, Duchess of Anjou, Countess of Provence, and regent of Provence during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of John I of Aragon and his wife Yolande of Bar. Yolande played a crucial role in the struggles between France and England, influencing events such as the financing of Joan of Arc's army in 1429 and tipping the balance in favour of the French. She was also known as Jolantha de Aragon and Violant d'Aragó. Tradition holds that she commissioned the famous Rohan Hours
1522 Anne of France the eldest daughter of Louis XI of France and his second wife, Charlotte of Savoy. Anne was the sister of King Charles VIII of France, for whom she acted as regent during his minority; and of Joan of France, who was briefly queen consort to Louis XII. As regent of France, Anne was one of the most powerful women of the late fifteenth century and was referred to as "Madame la Grande"
1540 Rosso Fiorentino an Italian Mannerist painter, in oil and fresco, belonging to the Florentine school.
1556 Giovanni della Casa a Florentine poet, writer on etiquette and society, diplomat, and inquisitor. He is celebrated for his famous treatise on polite behavior, Il Galateo overo de’ costumi. From the time of its publication, this courtesy book has enjoyed enormous success and influence. In the eighteenth century, influential critic Giuseppe Baretti wrote in The Italian Library , "The little treatise is looked upon by many Italians as the most elegant thing, as to stile, that we have in our language."
1608 Bartolomeo Carducci an Italian painter, better known as Carducho, the Spanish corruption of his Italian patronymic.
1633 William Ames an English Protestant divine, philosopher, and controversialist. He spent much time in the Netherlands, and is noted for his involvement in the controversy between the Calvinists and the Arminians
1634 Sophia of Holstein-Gottorp regent of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1603 to 1608.
1680 Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble and magnate. He is sometimes referred to as the first Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł, to distinguish him from the other member of his family to use the name
1682 Rijcklof van Goens the Governor of Zeylan and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He was the Governor of Zeylan from 12 May 1660 to 1661, then in 1663 and finally from 19 November 1664 to 1675 during the Dutch period in Ceylon
1687 Nell Gwyn a long-time mistress of King Charles II of England and Scotland. Called "pretty, witty Nell" by Samuel Pepys, she has been regarded as a living embodiment of the spirit of Restoration England and has come to be considered a folk heroine, with a story echoing the rags-to-royalty tale of Cinderella. She was the most famous Restoration actress and possessed a prodigious comic talent. Gwyn had two sons by King Charles:
1691 Tosa Mitsuoki a Japanese painter.
1692 Christoph Bernhard born in Kolberg, Pomerania, and died in Dresden. He studied with former Sweelinck-pupil Paul Siefert in Danzig and in Warsaw By the age of 20 he was singing at the electoral court in Dresden under Heinrich Schütz. He then spent a year in Copenhagen to study singing with Agostino Fontana
1694 Christian III Maurice Duke of Saxe-Merseburg a duke of Saxe-Merseburg and member of the House of Wettin.
1716 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz a German mathematician and philosopher. He occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy
1734 Louise de Kérouaille Duchess of Portsmouth a mistress of Charles II of England. Through her son by Charles II, Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, she is ancestress of both wives of Prince Charles: Diana, Princess of Wales, and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
1746 Georg Wilhelm Steller German botanist, zoologist, physician, and explorer
1749 Maruyama Gondazaemon a sumo wrestler. He is formally recognised as the third yokozuna. His real name was Haga Gindayu. He came from a village in the Sendai Domain
1759 Grégoire Orlyk a French military commander, special envoy and member of Louis XV's secret intelligence service. Grégoire Orlyk was born in Ukraine, the son of Ukrainian hetman in exile Pylyp Orlyk received good education in Sweden, served in Poland and Saxony, participated in secret efforts of France to restore on the Polish throne Stanisław Leszczyński. He later commanded the king's regiment of Royal suedois. For his intelligence work and military exploits was given the title of a comte and promoted to the general's rank of Maréchal de camp. Grégoire Orlyk was an acquaintance of French philosopher Voltaire, championed Ukrainian cause in France and other countries
1780 Jacobus Houbraken a Dutch engraver and the son of the artist and biographer Arnold Houbraken , whom he assisted in producing a published record of the lives of artists from the Dutch Golden Age.
1785 Duke George Augustus of Mecklenburg a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a German sailor and soldier.
1797 Ivan Shuvalov called the Maecenas of the Russian Enlightenment and the first Russian Minister of Education. Russia's first theatre, university, and academy of arts were instituted with his active participation
1797 Januarius Zick a painter and architect. He is considered to be one of the main masters of the Late-Baroque
1800 François Claude Amour marquis de Bouillé a French general. After distinguishing himself in the Seven Years' War, he was appointed governor of Guadeloupe in 1768. His most well-known military exploits took place in the West Indies during the American War of Independence, where he was involved in the French capture of a number of British possessions. Following that war he returned to France, where he held military commands in the country's northeast at the time of the French Revolution. A committed Royalist, he was a leading conspirator involved in the royal family's failed flight in 1791, whose failure forced de Bouillé into exile. He continued to be active in consultative roles to members of the First Coalition, which opposed the forces of Revolutionary France in the early years of the French Revolutionary War. He died in exile in London, and is mentioned as a hated Royalist in the French national anthem, La Marseillaise
1801 Grzegorz Piramowicz a Polish Catholic priest, educator, writer, and philosopher. He was a member of the Commission of National Education and Society for Elementary Books, and one of the founders of the Society of Friends of the Constitution
1813 Antonio de Capmany y Montpalau born at Barcelona.
1813 William Medows an Englishman and a general in the British Army.
1816 Thaddäus Haenke a Bohemian geographer and explorer in South America.
1816 Dmitry Dokhturov a Russian Infantry General and a prominent military leader during the Patriotic War of 1812.
1817 Policarpa Salavarrieta a Neogranadine seamstress who spied for the Revolutionary Forces during the Spanish Reconquista of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. She was captured by Spanish Royalists and ultimately executed for high treason. She is now considered a heroine of the independence of Colombia
1825 Jean Paul a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories.
1829 Louis Nicolas Vauquelin a French pharmacist and chemist.
1829 Maria Beatrice d'Este Duchess of Massa heiress of Modena and Reggio as well as the sovereign of Massa and Carrara from 1790 until 1797 and from 1816 until her death in 1829.
1831 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism
1831 Ignaz Pleyel an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period.
1832 Charles Carroll of Carrollton a wealthy Maryland planter and an early advocate of independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. He served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and Confederation Congress and later as first United States Senator for Maryland. He was the only Catholic and the longest-lived signatory of the Declaration of Independence, dying at the age of 95, at his city mansion in Baltimore's neighborhood of Jonestown on East Lombard and South Front Streets, by the Jones Falls
1832 Wilhelm Bendz a Danish painter mainly known for genre works and portraits which often portray his artist colleagues and their daily lives. He was one of the most talented artists in the successful generation of painters who studied under Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg but died early and has therefore left a relatively small oeuvre
1832 Rasmus Rask a Danish scholar and philologist.
1841 Thomas Bruce 7th Earl of Elgin a Scottish nobleman and diplomat, known for the removal of marble sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens.
1844 John Abercrombie (physician) a Scottish physician and philosopher. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary says of him that after Dr James Gregory's death, he was "recognized as the first consulting physician in Scotland"
1844 Flora Tristan a socialist writer and activist. She was one of the founders of modern feminism. She wrote several works, the best known of which are Peregrinations of a Pariah , Promenades in London , and The Workers' Union
1847 Josef Jungmann a Bohemian poet and linguist, and a leading figure of the Czech National Revival. Together with Josef Dobrovský, he is considered to be a creator of the modern Czech language