Born on November 15

459 B'utz Aj Sak Chiik a king of the Maya city of Palenque. He took the throne on 29 July 487, reigning until his death
1316 John I of France a Capetian King of France and Navarre, and Count of Champagne, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis the Quarreler, for the five days he lived. He thus had the shortest undisputed recognized reign of any French king. The son of Louis the Quarreler and Clementia of Hungary, sister of Charles I of Hungary, he is the only person to be King of France since birth, and thus, the youngest King of France and the only person to have been King of France during his entire lifetime
1397 Pope Nicholas V Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death in 1455. The Pontificate of Nicholas saw the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks. He is the last pope to take the name "Nicholas" upon his election
1498 Eleanor of Austria born an Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile from the House of Habsburg, and subsequently became Queen consort of Portugal and of France. She also held the Duchy of Touraine as dower. She is called "Leonor" in Spanish and Portuguese and "Eléonore" or "Aliénor" in French
1511 Johannes Secundus a New Latin poet of Dutch nationality.
1539 Saint Arthur of Glastonbury an English Roman Catholic faithful in the sixteenth century. He was martyred during the period of King Henry VIII's suppression of the Catholic Church due to his refusal to accept the king's claim to spiritual leadership of the Church in England
1556 Jacques Davy Duperron a French cardinal.
1635 Princess Margaret Yolande of Savoy Princess of Savoy from birth and later Duchess consort of Parma. A proposed bride for her first cousin Louis XIV of France, she later married Ranuccio Farnese, son of the late Odoardo Farnese and Margherita de' Medici. She died in childbirth in 1663
1660 Hermann von der Hardt a German historian and orientalist.
1661 Christoph von Graffenried led a group of Swiss and Palatine Germans to North Carolina in British North America in 1705. He later authored Relation of My American Project, an account of the establishment of New Bern
1670 Bernard Mandeville an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist. Born in Rotterdam, Netherlands, he lived most of his life in England and used English for most of his published works. He became famous for The Fable of the Bees
1688 Louis Bertrand Castel a French mathematician born in Montpellier, and entered the order of the Jesuits in 1703. Having studied literature, he afterwards devoted himself entirely to mathematics and natural philosophy. He wrote several scientific works, that which attracted most attention at the time being his Optique des couleurs , or treatise on the melody of colors. He also wrote Traité de physique sur la pesanteur universelle des corps , Mathématique universelle , and a critical account of the system of Sir Isaac Newton in 1743
1692 Eusebius Amort a German Roman Catholic theologian.
1693 Ivan Neplyuyev a Russian diplomat and administrator prominent in the service of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. His memoirs were published posthumously and his statue may be seen in Orenburg, the city he founded
1708 William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century. Historians call him Pitt or Chatham, or William Pitt the Elder to distinguish from his son, William Pitt the Younger, who also was a prime minister. Pitt was also known as The Great Commoner, because of his long-standing refusal to accept a title until 1766
1733 Antoine Gouan a French naturalist who was a native of Montpellier. Gouan was a pioneer of Linnaean taxonomy in France
1738 William Herschel a German-born British astronomer, composer, and brother of Caroline Herschel. Born in the Electorate of Hanover, Herschel followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, before migrating to Great Britain at the age of nineteen
1741 Johann Kaspar Lavater a Swiss poet and physiognomist.
1746 Jean-Henri Gourgaud born in Marseille, the son of Pierre-Antoine Gourgaud, the director of military hospitals there and also an actor.
1746 Joseph Quesnel a French Canadian composer, poet, and playwright. Among his works were two operas, Colas et Colinette and Lucas et Cécile; the former is considered to be the first Canadian opera
1757 Jacques Hébert a French journalist, and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution. His followers are usually referred to as the Hébertists or the Hébertistes; he himself is sometimes called Père Duchesne, after his newspaper
1757 Heinrich Christian Friedrich Schumacher a Danish surgeon, botanist and professor of anatomy at the University of Copenhagen. Schumacher carried out significant research work in malacology, in other words on molluscs, and assigned systematic names to many taxa
1766 Rodolphe Kreutzer a French violinist, teacher, conductor, and composer of forty French operas, including La mort d'Abel.
1771 Jean Charles Abbatucci a French general during the War of the First Coalition. His name is engraved on the Arc de Triomphe
1776 Pehr Henrik Ling pioneered the teaching of physical education in Sweden. Ling is often mistakenly credited as the father of Swedish massage, who is in fact Johann Georg Mezger
1776 José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi Mexican writer and political journalist, best known as the author of El Periquillo Sarniento , translated as The Mangy Parrot in English, reputed to be the first novel written in Latin America.
1784 Jérôme Bonaparte the youngest brother of Napoleon I and served as Jerome I, King of Westphalia between 1807 and 1813. After 1848, when his nephew, Louis Napoleon, became President of the second French Republic, he served in several official roles, being created first Prince of Montfort
1791 Friedrich Ernst Scheller a German jurist and politician. He served as a member of the Frankfurt Parliament
1793 Michel Chasles a French mathematician.
1799 Princess Maria Anna of Saxony (1799–1832) a princess of Saxony. She became Grand Duchess of Tuscany by her marriage to Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
1806 Osip Petrov a Russian operatic bass-baritone of great range and renown, whose career centred on St Petersburg.
1809 August Carl Joseph Corda a Czech physician and mycologist.
1810 Platon Ioseliani a Georgian historian.
1822 Prince Ferdinando Duke of Genoa (1822–1855) the founder of the Genoa branch of the House of Savoy.
1831 Adolfo Ballivián constitutional president of Bolivia between 1873 and 1874.
1834 Marcus Reno a career military officer in the American Civil War and in the Great Sioux War against the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne, where he served under George Armstrong Custer. Reno is most noted for his prominent role in the Battle of the Little Big Horn, which created over a century of controversy regarding his command decisions in the course of one of the most infamous defeats in the history of the United States military
1837 African Spir a Russian Neo-Kantian philosopher of Greek-German descent who wrote primarily in German. His book Denken und Wirklichkeit exerted a "lasting impact" on the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche
1841 Francisco Andrade Marín acting President of Ecuador from March 6 to August 10, 1912.
1845 Vasile Conta a Romanian philosopher, poet, and politician.
1846 Friedrich Eduard König a German Lutheran divine and Semitic scholar. He was born at Reichenbach im Vogtland and was educated at the University of Leipzig, where he became docent in 1879 and professor in 1885. In 1888 he became professor at Rostock and in 1900 at Bonn, where, as a theologian attacking Panbabylonism, he became involved in the so-called "Babel-Bible Dispute". As a linguist he attempted to apply the phonetic and physiological methods of modern philology to Hebrew and Ethiopic in such works as
1846 Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra a Dominican political figure. He served as the president of the Dominican Republic between 15 November 1899 and 2 May 1902, and again between 5 December 1914 and 7 May 1916
1850 Victor Laloux a French Beaux-Arts architect and teacher.
1852 Tewfik Pasha khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
1859 Christopher Hornsrud Andersen Hornsrud served as Prime Minister of Norway from January to February 1928. He combined the post of prime minister with that of minister of finance. Although his tenure as Prime Minister was brief, his list of political accomplishments is not. He was the first Prime Minister to come from the Norwegian Labour Party, which would later dominate the country's government for many years. Hornsrud also served as Postal Minister and in his later years was known for his extensive knowledge of Norway's political history
1860 Simon Frug a multi-lingual Russian poet, lyricist and author.
1862 Gerhart Hauptmann a German dramatist and novelist. He is counted among the most important promoters of literary naturalism, though he integrated other styles into his work. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1912
1862 Adolf Bartels a German journalist and poet. Known for his völkisch worldview, he has been seen as a harbinger of National Socialist anti-Semitism
1866 Gervase Elwes an English tenor of great distinction, who exercised a powerful influence over the development of English music from the early 1900s up until his death in 1921 due to a railroad accident in Boston at the height of his career.
1867 Emil Krebs a German polyglot and sinologist. He mastered 68 languages in speech and writing and studied 120 other languages
1868 Emil Racoviță a Romanian biologist, zoologist, speleologist, explorer of Antarctica and the first biologist in the world to study the arctic life.