Died on November 16

498 Pope Anastasius II Pope from 24 November 496 to his death in 498. He was an important figure trying to end Acacian schism, but his efforts resulted in the Laurentian schism, which followed his death. Anastasius was born in Rome, the son of a priest, and is buried in Peter's Basilica
1005 Ælfric of Abingdon a late 10th-century Archbishop of Canterbury. He previously held the offices of abbot of St Albans Abbey and Bishop of Ramsbury, as well as likely being the abbot of Abingdon Abbey. After his election to Canterbury, he continued to hold the bishopric of Ramsbury along with the archbishopric of Canterbury until his death in 1005. Ælfric may have altered the composition of Canterbury's cathedral chapter by changing the clergy serving in the cathedral from secular clergy to monks. In his will he left a ship to King Æthelred II of England as well as more ships to other legatees
1093 Saint Margaret of Scotland an English princess of the House of Wessex. Margaret was sometimes called “The Pearl of Scotland”. Born in exile in Hungary, she was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. Margaret and her family returned to England in 1057, but fled to the Kingdom of Scotland following the Norman conquest of England of 1066. Around 1070 Margaret married Malcolm III of Scotland, becoming his queen consort. She was a pious woman, and among many charitable works she established a ferry across the Firth of Forth for pilgrims travelling to Dunfermline Abbey, which gave the towns of South Queensferry and North Queensferry their names. Margaret was the mother of three kings of Scotland and a queen consort of England. According to the Life of Saint Margaret, attributed to Turgot of Durham, she died at Edinburgh Castle in 1093, just days after receiving the news of her husband's death in battle. In 1250 she was canonised by Pope Innocent IV, and her remains were reinterred in a shrine at Dunfermline Abbey. Her relics were dispersed after the Scottish Reformation and subsequently lost
1240 Edmund Rich a 13th-century Archbishop of Canterbury in England. Today he is remembered for his connection to St Edmund Hall, Oxford, St Edmund's College, Cambridge, St Edmund's School, Canterbury and Edmund's College, Ware
1272 Henry III of England King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who reestablished royal authority after the war. In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church
1322 Nasr Sultan of Granada a son of Muhammed II al-Faqih and the fourth Nasrid ruler of the Moorish Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula.
1323 Frederick I Margrave of Meissen margrave of Meissen and landgrave of Thuringia.
1464 John Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and served as the peace-loving Margrave of Brandenburg after the abdication of his father, Frederick I, the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule Brandenburg.
1548 Caspar Creuziger a German humanist. He was professor of Theology at the University of Wittenberg, preacher at the Castle Church , secretary to and worked with Martin Luther to revise Luther's German Bible translation
1580 Marie of Baden-Sponheim a German noblewoman and duchess of Bavaria.
1603 Pierre Charron a French 16th-century Catholic theologian and philosopher, and a disciple and contemporary of Michel Montaigne.
1613 Trajano Boccalini an Italian satirist.
1623 Francisco Sanches an skeptic philosopher and physician of Sephardi Jewish origin.
1625 Sofonisba Anguissola an Italian Renaissance painter born in Cremona. She received a well-rounded education that included the fine arts, and her apprenticeship with local painters set a precedent for women to be accepted as students of art. As a young woman, Anguissola traveled to Rome where she was introduced to Michelangelo, who immediately recognized her talent, and to Milan, where she painted the Duke of Alba, Elizabeth of Valois, the queen of Philip II of Spain, was a keen amateur painter, and Anguissola was recruited to go to Madrid as her tutor, with the rank of lady-in-waiting. She later became an official court painter to the king, and adapted her style to the more formal requirements of official portraits for the Spanish court. After the queen's death, Philip helped arrange an aristocratic marriage for her. She moved to Palermo, and later Pisa and Genoa, where she continued to practice as a leading portrait painter, apparently with the support of her two husbands, living to the age of ninety-three
1628 Paolo Quagliati an Italian composer of the early Baroque era and a member of the Roman School of composers. He was a transitional figure between the late Renaissance style and the earliest Baroque and was one of the first to write solo madrigals in the conservative musical center of Rome
1672 Esaias Boursse a Dutch painter. His paintings were mainly genre works
1688 Bengt Gottfried Forselius a founder of public education in Estonia, author of the first ABC-book in the Estonian language, and creator of a spelling system which made the teaching and learning of Estonian easier. Forselius and Johan Hornung were mainly responsible for making a start at reforming the Estonian literary language in the late 17th century. Some German constructions were abandoned, and a strict spelling system was adopted which still relied on German orthography
1695 Pierre Nicole one of the most distinguished of the French Jansenists.
1706 Godfried Schalcken a Dutch genre and portrait painter. He was noted for his mastery in reproducing the effect of candlelight, and painted in the exquisite and highly polished manner of the Leiden fijnschilders
1711 John Mavrocordatos caimacam of Moldavia and Prince of Wallachia between 2 December 1716 and 23 February 1719. He was a member of the Mavrocordatos family
1714 Aleksander Benedykt Sobieski the son of John III Sobieski, King of Poland, and his wife, Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien.
1715 Jacques d'Agar a French portrait painter born in Paris. He was a scholar of Ferdinand Voet, and began life as an historical painter, but he soon abandoned history for portraiture, in which branch of art he became very successful. His son Charles d'Agar also became a portrait painter. In 1675 he was admitted into the Academy, and he became also painter in ordinary to the king and his court. Upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Agar, as a Protestant, was shut out from the Academy. He accordingly left France in 1682—never to return
1724 Jack Sheppard a notorious English thief and gaol-breaker of early 18th-century London. Born into a poor family, he was apprenticed as a carpenter but took to theft and burglary in 1723, with little more than a year of his training to complete. He was arrested and imprisoned five times in 1724 but escaped four times from prison, making him a notorious public figure, and wildly popular with the poorer classes. Ultimately, he was caught, convicted, and hanged at Tyburn, ending his brief criminal career after less than two years. The inability of the notorious "Thief-Taker General" Jonathan Wild to control Sheppard, and injuries suffered by Wild at the hands of Sheppard's colleague, Joseph "Blueskin" Blake, led to Wild's downfall
1745 Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt an Austrian baroque architect and military engineer who designed stately buildings and churches and whose work had a profound influence on the architecture of the Habsburg Empire in the eighteenth century. After studying in Rome under Carlo Fontana, he constructed fortresses for Prince Eugene of Savoy during his Italian campaigns, becoming his favorite architect. In 1700 he became court engineer in Vienna, and in 1711 was named head of the court department of building. He became court architect in 1723. His designs for palaces, estates, gardens, churches, chapels, and villas were widely imitated, and his architectural principles spread throughout central and southeast Europe. Among his more important works are Palais Schwarzenberg, Peter's Church, and Belvedere in Vienna, Savoy Castle in Ráckeve, Schönborn Palace in Göllersdorf, and Schloss Hof
1768 Hans von Lehwaldt a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who participated in the Silesian Wars of Frederick the Great.
1773 John Hawkesworth (book editor) born in London.
1779 Pehr Kalm a Swedish-Finnish explorer, botanist, naturalist, and agricultural economist. He was one of the most important apostles of Carl Linnaeus
1780 Nicolas Joseph Laurent Gilbert a French poet born at Fontenoy-le-Château, Vosges, Lorraine.
1785 Johan Gottschalk Wallerius a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
1790 Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer a politician and a Founding Father of the United States. Born long before conflicts with Great Britain emerged, he was a leader for many years in Maryland's colonial government. However, when conflict arose with Great Britain, he embraced the Patriot cause
1797 Frederick William II of Prussia King of Prussia, from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-Elector of Brandenburg and the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. Pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick Under his reign, Prussia was weakened internally and externally, and he failed to deal adequately with the challenges to the existing order posed by the French Revolution. His religious policies were directed against the Enlightenment and aimed at restoring a traditional Protestantism. However, he was a patron of the arts and responsible for the construction of some notable buildings, among them the Brandenburger Tor in Berlin
1806 Moses Cleaveland a lawyer, politician, soldier, and surveyor from Connecticut who founded the U.S. city of Cleveland, Ohio, while surveying the Western Reserve in 1796.
1820 Jean-Lambert Tallien a French political figure of the revolutionary period.
1831 Countess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf by marriage a duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She was born in Saalburg-Ebersdorf. She was the maternal grandmother of Queen Victoria and the paternal grandmother of Albert, Prince Consort
1831 Carl von Clausewitz a German general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege , was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist and used the more rationalist ideas of the European Enlightenment. His thinking is often described as Hegelian because of his references to dialectical thinking but, although he was probably personally acquainted with Hegel, there remains debate as to whether or not Clausewitz was in fact a disciple. He stressed the dialectical interaction of diverse factors, noting how unexpected developments unfolding under the "fog of war" call for rapid decisions by alert commanders. He saw history as a vital check on erudite abstractions that did not accord with experience. In contrast to Antoine-Henri Jomini, he argued that war could not be quantified or reduced to mapwork, geometry, and graphs. Clausewitz had many aphorisms, of which the most famous is one that he himself never wrote: "War is the continuation of Politik by other means" , a description that has since won wide acceptance. Instead, Clausewitz actually wrote: "War is the continuation of Politik with other means". The inclusion of the German preposition "mit" changes the content of the sentence radically
1833 René Louiche Desfontaines a French botanist.
1836 Christiaan Hendrik Persoon a mycologist who made additions to Linnaeus' mushroom taxonomy.
1844 Heinrich Christoph Wilhelm Sigwart a German philosopher and logician. He was the father of Christoph von Sigwart , who also was a philosopher and logician
1850 Aaron Alexandre a Jewish German–French–English chess player and writer.
1851 Gülcemal Kadınefendi the Bosnian wife of 31st Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid She was the mother of Fatma Sultan, Hadice Sultan, Refia Sultan, Rukiye Sultan and Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire. Her rank in the royal harem was "Dördüncü Kadın Efendi"
1854 Jean Baptiste Antoine Marcellin de Marbot born at La Riviere.
1861 Georg Freytag a German philologist.
1865 Horatio Thomas Austin a British officer in the Royal Navy, and an explorer.
1876 Karl Ernst von Baer an Estonian scientist and explorer. Baer is also known in Russia as Karl Maksimovich Baer
1877 Karl L. Littrow an Austrian astronomer.
1878 Đura Jakšić a Serbian poet, painter, writer, dramatist, bohemian and patriot.
1878 Anton Dominik Fernkorn a German-Austrian sculptor. He was born in Erfurt, Thuringia and died in Vienna
1878 Manuel Pardo a Peruvian politician and the first civilian President of Peru.
1878 Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (1874–1878) the youngest daughter of Princess Alice of the United Kingdom and Ludwig IV, the Grand Duke of Hesse. Her mother was the second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. She died of diphtheria at the age of four and was buried with her mother, who died a few weeks later of the same disease. She and her maternal grandmother, Queen Victoria, shared the same birthday
1879 Franz Anton Schiefner a Baltic German linguist and tibetologist.