November 16 events in history

1272 While travelling during the Ninth Crusade, Prince Edward becomes King of England upon Henry III of England's death, but he will not return to England for nearly two years to assume the throne
1491 An auto-da-fé, held in the Brasero de la Dehesa outside of Ávila, concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia with the public execution of several Jewish and converso suspects
1532 Francisco Pizarro and his men capture Inca Emperor Atahualpa at the Battle of Cajamarca
1632 Thirty Years' War: Battle of Lützen is fought, the Swedes are victorious but King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden dies in the battle
1776 American Revolutionary War: British and Hessian units capture Fort Washington from the Patriots
1776 American Revolution: The United Provinces (Low Countries) recognize the independence of the United States
1793 French Revolution: Ninety anti-republican Catholic priests are executed by drowning at Nantes
1797 The Prussian heir apparent, Frederick William, becomes King of Prussia as Frederick William III
1805 Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Schöngrabern – Russian forces under Pyotr Bagration delay the pursuit by French troops under Joachim Murat
1822 American Old West: Missouri trader William Becknell arrives in Santa Fe, New Mexico, over a route that became known as the Santa Fe Trail
1828 Greek War of Independence: The London Protocol entails the creation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, encompassing the Morea and the Cyclades
1849 A Russian court sentences writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group; his sentence is later commuted to hard labor
1852 The English astronomer John Russell Hind discovers the asteroid 22 Kalliope
1857 Second relief of Lucknow – twenty-four Victoria Crosses are awarded, the most in a single day
1863 American Civil War: Battle of Campbell's Station near Knoxville, Tennessee – Confederate troops unsuccessfully attack Union forces
1885 Canadian rebel leader of the Métis and "Father of Manitoba" Louis Riel is executed for treason
1904 English engineer John Ambrose Fleming receives a patent for the thermionic valve (vacuum tube)
1907 Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory join to form Oklahoma, which is admitted as the 46th U.S. state
1907 Cunard Line's RMS Mauretania, sister ship of RMS Lusitania, sets sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England, to New York City
1914 The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens
1920 Qantas, Australia's national airline, is founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited
1940 World War II: In response to the leveling of Coventry by the German Luftwaffe two days before, the Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg
1940 Holocaust: In occupied Poland, the Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world
1940 New York City's "Mad Bomber" George Metesky places his first bomb at a Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison
1943 World War II: American bombers strike a hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vemork, Norway
1944 World War II: Operation Queen, the costly Allied thrust to the Rur, is launched
1944 World War II: Dueren, Germany, is destroyed by Allied bombers
1945 UNESCO is founded
1965 Venera program: The Soviet Union launches the Venera 3 space probe toward Venus, which will be the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet
1973 Skylab program: NASA launches Skylab 4 with a crew of three astronauts from Cape Canaveral, Florida for an 84-day mission
1973 U.S. President Richard Nixon signs the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law, authorizing the construction of the Alaska Pipeline
1974 The Arecibo Message is broadcast from the Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico. It was aimed at the current location of the globular star cluster Messier 13 some 25,000 light years away. The message will reach empty space by the time it finally arrives since the cluster will have changed position
1979 The first line of Bucharest Metro (Line M1) is opened from Timpuri Noi to Semănătoarea in Bucharest, Romania
1988 The Supreme Soviet of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic declares that Estonia is "sovereign" but stops short of declaring independence
1988 In the first open election in more than a decade, voters in Pakistan elect populist candidate Benazir Bhutto to be Prime Minister of Pakistan
1989 A death squad composed of El Salvadoran army troops kills six Jesuit priests and two others at Jose Simeon Canas University
1992 The Hoxne Hoard is discovered by metal detectorist Eric Lawes in Hoxne, Suffolk
1997 After nearly 18 years of incarceration, the People's Republic of China releases Wei Jingsheng, a pro-democracy dissident, from jail for medical reasons