Born on November 18

709 Emperor Kōnin the 49th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōnin's reign lasted from 770 to 781
1092 Adelaide of Maurienne the second spouse but first Queen consort of Louis VI of France.
1522 Lamoral Count of Egmont a general and statesman in the Habsburg Netherlands just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands.
1527 Luca Cambiasi an Italian painter and draftsman, familiarly known as Lucchetto da Genova.
1569 Antonio Marcello Barberini an Italian cardinal and the younger brother of Maffeo Barberini, later Pope Urban VIII. He is sometimes referred to as Antonio the Elder to distinguish him from his nephew Antonio Barberini
1630 Eleonora Gonzaga (1630–1686) Holy Roman Empress as the wife of Emperor Ferdinand III.
1646 Zhu Youlang the fourth and last emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty of China. His era name means "Perpetual calendar"
1647 Pierre Bayle a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.
1661 Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-Kassel the daughter of William VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Hedwig Sophia of Brandenburg a sister of Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg.
1662 Princess Anne Élisabeth of France the second child and first daughter of Louis XIV of France and his Spanish wife Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain.
1664 Charles of Mecklenburg-Güstrow the hereditary prince of Mecklenburg-Güstrow. He was a son of Gustavus Adolph and his wife Magdalene Sibylle née Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, a daughter of Frederick III
1680 Jean-Baptiste Loeillet of London a Flemish baroque composer as well as a performer on the recorder, flute, oboe, and harpsichord. He is called the London Loeillet to distinguish him from another famous composer, his first cousin Jean Baptiste Loeillet of Ghent, and he was the elder brother of Jacques Loeillet, also a composer
1714 William Shenstone an English poet and one of the earliest practitioners of landscape gardening through the development of his estate, The Leasowes.
1727 Philibert Commerson a French naturalist, best known for accompanying Louis Antoine de Bougainville on his voyage of circumnavigation in 1766–1769.
1736 Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch a German composer and harpsichordist.
1736 Anton Graff an eminent Swiss portrait artist. Among his famous subjects were Friedrich Schiller, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Heinrich von Kleist, Frederick the Great, Friederike Sophie Seyler, Johann Gottfried Herder, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Moses Mendelssohn and Christian Felix Weisse. His pupils included Emma Körner, Philipp Otto Runge and Karl Ludwig Kaaz
1746 Princess Maria Leopoldine of Anhalt-Dessau a princess of Anhalt-Dessau by birth and by marriage Countess of Lippe-Detmold.
1756 Thomas Burgess (bishop) an English author, philosopher, Bishop of Saint David's and Bishop of Salisbury.
1768 Zacharias Werner a German poet, dramatist, and preacher. As a dramatist, he is known mainly for inaugurating the era of the so-called “tragedies of fate.”
1769 Augustus Christian Frederick Duke of Anhalt-Köthen a German prince of the House of Ascania, ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Köthen, and from 1806 the first "Duke of Anhalt-Köthen.".
1772 Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia
1773 Tokugawa Ienari the eleventh and longest serving shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan who held office from 1787 to 1837. He was a great-grandson of the eighth shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune through his son Munetada , head of the Hitotsubashi branch of the family, and his grandson Harusada
1774 Wilhelmine of Prussia Queen of the Netherlands the first wife of King William I of the Netherlands and so the first Queen of the Netherlands.
1774 William Horsley an English musician. His compositions are numerous, and include amongst other instrumental pieces three symphonies for full orchestra. More important are his glees, of which he published five books besides contributing many detached glees and part songs to various collections. His glees include "By Celia's Arbour," "O, Nightingale," and "Now the storm begins to lower", and his hymn tunes "There is a green hill far away."
1777 Jean-Pons-Guillaume Viennet a French politician, playwright and poet. He was also a member of the Académie française and a prominent Freemason
1781 Felice Blangini an Italian musical composer.
1783 Annibale Santorre di Rossi de Pomarolo Count of Santarosa an Italian insurgent and leader in the revival of Italy.
1785 David Wilkie (artist) a Scottish painter.
1786 Henry Bishop (composer) an English composer. He is most famous for the songs "Home! Sweet Home!" and "Lo! Here the Gentle Lark." He was the composer or arranger of some 120 dramatic works, including 80 operas, light operas, cantatas, and ballets. Knighted in 1842, he was the first musician to be so honoured. Bishop worked for all the major theatres of London in his era — including the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden, the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Vauxhall Gardens and the Haymarket Theatre, and was Professor of Music at the universities of Edinburgh and Oxford. His second wife was the noted soprano Anna Bishop, who scandalised British society by leaving him and conducting an open liaison with the harpist Nicolas-Charles Bochsa until the latter's death in Sydney
1787 Louis Daguerre a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography. He became known as one of the fathers of photography. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre
1791 Alexandru Sturdza a Russian publicist and diplomat of Romanian origin. In his writings, he referred to himself with a French rendition of his name, Alexandre Stourdza
1800 John Nelson Darby an Anglo-Irish Bible teacher, one of the influential figures among the original Plymouth Brethren and the founder of the Exclusive Brethren. He is considered to be the father of modern Dispensationalism and Futurism in the English vernacular. He produced a translation of the Bible based on the Hebrew and Greek texts called The Holy Scriptures: A New Translation from the Original Languages by N. Darby
1802 Joseph Russegger an Austrian geologist who was a native of Salzburg.
1803 Edmund Prince of Schwarzenberg the last created Austrian Field marshal of the 19th century.
1804 Gábor Klauzál a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Trade during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 in the first government of Hungary. He studied in Szeged. He was a member of the National Assembly of Hungary from 1832 and served as one of the leaders of the liberal opposition on the Diet of 1843–44. He retired from the politics in 1844 until the outbreak of the revolution
1804 Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora an Italian general and statesman. His brother Alessandro La Marmora founded the branch of the Italian army now called the Bersaglieri
1810 Asa Gray considered the most important American botanist of the 19th century.
1815 Lorenz von Stein a German economist, sociologist, and public administration scholar from Eckernförde. As an advisor to Meiji period Japan, his conservative political views influenced the wording of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan
1818 Marco Minghetti an Italian economist and statesman.
1821 Franz Brünnow a German astronomer.
1822 Mathurin Moreau a French sculptor in the academic style.
1824 Franz Sigel a German military officer, revolutionist and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union major general in the American Civil War.
1827 Mehmed Ali Pasha (marshal) a German-born Ottoman soldier. He was the grandfather of the Turkish statesman Ali Fuat Cebesoy, and the great-grandfather of famous poets Nâzım Hikmet and Oktay Rıfat Horozcu and the socialist activist, lawyer, and athlete Mehmet Ali Aybar
1828 John Langdon Down now called Down syndrome which he originally classified in 1862.
1831 Johannes Bosscha a Dutch physicist.
1832 Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld a Finnish baron, botanist, geologist, mineralogist and arctic explorer of Finland-Swedish origin. He was a member of the prominent Finland-Swedish Nordenskiöld family of scientists
1834 Carl Benjamin Klunzinger a German physician and zoologist.
1836 W. S. Gilbert an English dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for the fourteen comic operas produced in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan. The most famous of these include H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and one of the most frequently performed works in the history of musical theatre, The Mikado. These, as well as several of the other Savoy operas, continue to be frequently performed in the English-speaking world and beyond by opera companies, repertory companies, schools and community theatre groups. Lines from these works have become part of the English language, such as "short, sharp shock", "What, never? Well, hardly ever!", and "Let the punishment fit the crime"
1836 Ding Ruchang a career military officer in the late Qing dynasty military of China.
1836 Máximo Gómez a Dominican Major General in the Ten Years' War. He was also Cuba's military commander in that country's War of Independence