November 18 events in history

326 The old St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated
401 The Visigoths, led by king Alaric I, cross the Alps and invade northern Italy
1105 Maginulfo is elected the Antipope as Sylvester IV
1180 Phillip II becomes king of France
1210 Pope Innocent III excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV
1302 Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Unam sanctam (One Faith)
1307 William Tell shoots an apple off his son's head
1421 A seawall at the Zuiderzee dike in the Netherlands breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people. This event will be known as St. Elizabeth's flood
1493 Christopher Columbus first sights the island now known as Puerto Rico
1494 French King Charles VIII occupies Florence, Italy
1601 Tiryaki Hasan Pasha, provincial governor of Ottoman Empire, utterly defeats Habsburg forces, commanded by Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria during the Siege of Nagykanizsa
1730 The future Frederick II (known as Frederick the Great), King of Prussia, is granted a royal pardon and released from confinement
1803 The Battle of Vertières, the last major battle of the Haitian Revolution, is fought, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the Western Hemisphere
1809 In a naval action during the Napoleonic Wars, French frigates defeat British East Indiamen in the Bay of Bengal
1812 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Krasnoi ends in French defeat, but Marshal of France Michel Ney's leadership leads to him becoming known as "the bravest of the brave"
1863 King Christian IX of Denmark signs the November constitution that declares Schleswig to be part of Denmark. This is seen by the German Confederation as a violation of the London Protocol and leads to the German–Danish war of 1864
1865 Mark Twain's short story "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" is published in the New York Saturday Press
1883 American and Canadian railroads institute five standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times
1903 The Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the United States exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone
1904 General Esteban Huertas steps down after the government of Panama fears he wants to stage a coup
1905 Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway
1909 Two United States warships are sent to Nicaragua after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) are executed by order of José Santos Zelaya
1916 World War I: First Battle of the Somme: In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle which started on July 1, 1916
1918 Latvia declares its independence from Russia
1926 George Bernard Shaw refuses to accept the money for his Nobel Prize, saying, "I can forgive Alfred Nobel for inventing dynamite, but only a fiend in human form could have invented the Nobel Prize."
1928 Release of the animated short Steamboat Willie, the first fully synchronized sound cartoon, directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, featuring the third appearances of cartoon characters Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse. This is considered by the Disney corporation to be Mickey's birthday
1929 Grand Banks earthquake: Off the south coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean, a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake, centered on the Grand Banks, breaks 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggers a tsunami that destroys many south coast communities in the Burin Peninsula
1930 Soka Kyoiku Gakkai, a Buddhist association later renamed Soka Gakkai, is founded by Japanese educators Tsunesaburō Makiguchi and Jōsei Toda
1938 Trade union members elect John L. Lewis as the first president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations
1940 World War II: German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini's disastrous Italian invasion of Greece
1943 World War II: Battle of Berlin: Four hundred forty Royal Air Force planes bomb Berlin causing only light damage and killing 131. The RAF loses nine aircraft and 53 air crew
1944 The Popular Socialist Youth is founded in Cuba
1947 The Ballantyne's Department Store fire in Christchurch, New Zealand, kills 41; it is the worst fire disaster in the history of New Zealand
1949 The Iva Valley Shooting occurs after the coal miners of Enugu in Nigeria go on strike over withheld wages; 21 miners are shot dead and 51 are wounded by police under the supervision of the British colonial administration of Nigeria
1961 United States President John F. Kennedy sends 18,000 military advisors to South Vietnam
1963 The first push-button telephone goes into service
1970 U.S. President Richard Nixon asks the U.S. Congress for $155 million in supplemental aid for the Cambodian government
1978 In Jonestown, Guyana, Jim Jones led his Peoples Temple to a mass murder–suicide that claimed 918 lives in all, 909 of them in Jonestown itself, including over 270 children. Congressman Leo Ryan is murdered by members of the Peoples Temple hours earlier
1987 King's Cross fire: In London, 31 people die in a fire at the city's busiest underground station, King's Cross St Pancras
1988 War on Drugs: U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill into law allowing the death penalty for drug traffickers
1991 Shiite Muslim kidnappers in Lebanon release Anglican Church envoys Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland
1991 After an 87-day siege, the Croatian city of Vukovar capitulates to the besieging Yugoslav People's Army and allied Serb paramilitary forces
1993 In the United States, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is approved by the House of Representatives
1993 In South Africa, 21 political parties approve a new constitution, expanding voting rights and ending white minority rule
1996 A fire occurs on a train traveling through the Channel Tunnel from France to England causing several injuries and damaging approximately 500 metres (1,600 ft) of tunnel
2002 Iraq disarmament crisis: United Nations weapons inspectors led by Hans Blix arrive in Iraq
2003 In the United Kingdom, the Local Government Act 2003, repealing controversial anti-gay amendment Section 28, becomes effective
2003 The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court rules 4–3 in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health that the state's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional and gives the state legislature 180 days to change the law making Massachusetts the first state in the United States to grant marriage rights to same-sex couples
2013 NASA launches the MAVEN probe to Mars