Born on November 19

1168 Emperor Ningzong of Song the 13th emperor of the Song Dynasty who reigned from 1194 to 1224. His temple name means "Tranquil Ancestor". His reign was noted for the cultural and intellectual achievements. In particular, Zhu Xi wrote some of his most famous works during this period. However, Ningzong personally was known for aversion to the daoxue spread at court
1235 Henry XIII Duke of Bavaria Duke of Lower Bavaria. As Duke of Lower Bavaria, he is also called Henry I
1272 David of Augsburg a medieval German mystic, and a Franciscan friar. It is believed that he probably joined the Franciscan Order at Regensburg. He was the master of novices in the Franciscan houses at Regensburg and Augsburg. He wrote the acclaimed "Formula Novitiorum"
1350 Raoul II of Brienne Count of Eu the son of Raoul I of Brienne, Count of Eu and Guînes and Jeanne de Mello. He succeeded his father in 1344 as Count of Eu and Guînes, as well as in his post as Constable of France
1413 Frederick II Elector of Brandenburg a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1440 until his abdication in 1470, and was a member of the House of Hohenzollern.
1462 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara the 104th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from November 16, 1500 to May 19, 1526. His personal name was Katsuhito. His reign marked the nadir of Imperial authority during the Ashikaga shogunate
1503 Pier Luigi Farnese Duke of Parma the first Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro, from 1545 to 1547.
1563 Robert Sidney 1st Earl of Leicester a statesman of Elizabethan and Jacobean England. He was also a patron of the arts and an interesting poet. His mother, Mary Sidney née Dudley, was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth I and a sister of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, an advisor and favourite of the Queen
1597 Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate (1597–1660) the wife of George William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, and the mother of Frederick William of Brandenburg, the "Great Elector".
1600 Lieuwe van Aitzema a Dutch historian, diplomat, bon viveur, philanderer and spy.
1600 Charles I of England monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
1617 Eustache Le Sueur born in Paris, where he passed his whole life.
1650 Henry Duke of Saxe-Römhild a duke of Saxe-Römhild.
1653 Christian II Duke of Saxe-Merseburg a duke of Saxe-Merseburg and member of the House of Wettin.
1668 Philip William August Count Palatine of Neuburg a Prince and Count Palatine of Neuburg.
1675 Epiphanius Slavinetsky an ecclesiastical expert of the Russian Orthodox Church who helped Patriarch Nikon to revise the ancient service-books, thus precipitating the Great Schism of the national church.
1696 Louis Tocqué a French painter. He specialized in portrait painting
1700 Jean-Antoine Nollet a French clergyman and physicist. As a priest, he was also known as Abbé Nollet
1711 Mikhail Lomonosov a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language
1722 Benjamin Chew a fifth-generation American, a Quaker-born legal scholar, a prominent and successful Philadelphia lawyer, head of the Pennsylvania Judiciary System under both Colony and Commonwealth, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Province of Pennsylvania. Chew was well known for his precision and brevity in making legal arguments as well as his excellent memory, judgment, and knowledge of statutory law. His primary allegiance was to the supremacy of law and constitution
1722 Leopold Auenbrugger the Austrian physician who invented percussion as a diagnostic technique. On the strength of this discovery, he is considered one of the founders of modern medicine
1724 Jacobus Buys a Dutch painter and engraver.
1726 Franz Joseph I Prince of Liechtenstein the Prince of Liechtenstein from 1772 until his death.
1733 Joseph von Quarin an Austrian physician born in Vienna.
1739 François Claude Amour marquis de Bouillé a French general. After distinguishing himself in the Seven Years' War, he was appointed governor of Guadeloupe in 1768. His most well-known military exploits took place in the West Indies during the American War of Independence, where he was involved in the French capture of a number of British possessions. Following that war he returned to France, where he held military commands in the country's northeast at the time of the French Revolution. A committed Royalist, he was a leading conspirator involved in the royal family's failed flight in 1791, whose failure forced de Bouillé into exile. He continued to be active in consultative roles to members of the First Coalition, which opposed the forces of Revolutionary France in the early years of the French Revolutionary War. He died in exile in London, and is mentioned as a hated Royalist in the French national anthem, La Marseillaise
1739 José de Urrutia y de las Casas a Spanish captain general and military engineer.
1752 George Rogers Clark a soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war. Clark is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia and Vincennes during the Illinois Campaign, which greatly weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. Because the British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Clark has often been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest."
1754 Pedro Romero a legendary bullfighter from the Romero family in Ronda, Spain.
1754 Karl Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Meiningen a duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
1770 Bertel Thorvaldsen a Danish sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, and was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art when he was eleven years old. Working part-time with his father, who was a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy. He was awarded a stipend to travel to Rome and continue his education
1770 Adam Johann von Krusenstern a Baltic German admiral and explorer, who led the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe.
1775 Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger a German entomologist and zoologist.
1778 Charles de Salaberry a French-speaking Canadien of the seigneurial class who served as an officer of the British army in Lower Canada. He won distinction for repelling the American advance on Montreal during the War of 1812
1779 Duchess Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin the maternal grandmother of Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
1786 Carl Maria von Weber a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
1799 René Caillié a French explorer and the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu.
1802 Solomon Foot a United States Senator from Vermont.
1804 Alexandre Mouton a United States Senator and the 11th Governor of Louisiana.
1805 Ferdinand de Lesseps a French diplomat and later developer of the Suez Canal, which in 1869 joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas, substantially reducing sailing distances and times between the West and the East.
1808 Janez Bleiweis a Slovene conservative politician, journalist, physician, veterinarian, and public figure. He was the leader of the so-called Old Slovene political movement. Already during his lifetime, he was called father of the nation
1808 Thomas Buchanan (Governor of Liberia) the second governor of Liberia and a cousin of James Buchanan, President of the United States. He came to Liberia as the envoy of the American Colonization Society in the 1830s. He worked first as an administrator in Grand Bassa, which later had its capital named Buchanan in his honor. In 1839, Buchanan was sent to Monrovia, where he became the second governor of Liberia after the death of Jehudi Ashmun. He served from April 1, 1839 until his death on September 3, 1841
1811 François Delsarte a French musician and teacher. Though he achieved some success as a composer, he is chiefly known as a teacher in singing and declamation. He went on to develop an acting style that attempted to connect the inner emotional experience of the actor with a systematized set of gestures and movements based upon his own observations of human interaction. This “Delsarte” method became so popular that it was taught throughout the world, but particularly in America, by many teachers who did not fully understand or communicate the emotional connections behind the gestures, and as a result the method devolved into melodramatic posing, the kind in response to which Constantin Stanislavski would later develop his inner psychological methods
1812 Franz Felix Adalbert Kuhn a German philologist and folklorist.
1812 Edmond Jurien de La Gravière a French admiral, son of Admiral Pierre Roch Jurien de La Gravière, who served through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and was a peer of France under Louis-Philippe.
1812 Karl Schwarz a German Protestant theologian.
1815 Karl Kessler a German-Russian zoologist and author of zoological taxa signed Kessler, who was mostly active in Kiev, Ukraine and conducted most of his studies of birds in Ukrainian regions of the Russian Empire - Kiev Governorate, Volyn Governorate, Kherson Governorate, Poltava Governorate and Bessarabia. He also studied the fish of the Dniester, Dnieper, and Southern Bug rivers, and on the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea
1826 Alfred Mézières a French journalist, politician and historian of literature.
1827 Henry Howe Bemrose a British printer and publisher, as well as mayor and later Conservative Member of Parliament for Derby.
1828 Rani Lakshmibai the rani of the Maratha-ruled Jhansi State, situated in the north-central part of India. She was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and for Indian nationalists a symbol of resistance to the rule of the British East India Company in the subcontinent
1829 Georg Meissner a German anatomist and physiologist born in Hanover.