November 19 events in history

461 Libius Severus is declared emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The real power is in the hands of the magister militum Ricimer
636 The Rashidun Caliphate defeated the Sasanian Empire at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah in Iraq
1095 The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land, begins
1493 Christopher Columbus goes ashore on an island he first saw the day before. He names it San Juan Bautista (later renamed Puerto Rico)
1794 The United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign Jay's Treaty, which attempts to resolve some of the lingering problems left over from the American Revolutionary War
1816 Warsaw University is established
1847 The second Canadian railway line, the Montreal and Lachine Railway, is opened
1863 American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication ceremony for the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
1881 A meteorite lands near the village of Grossliebenthal, southwest of Odessa, Ukraine
1885 Serbo-Bulgarian War: Bulgarian victory in the Battle of Slivnitsa solidifies the unification between the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia
1911 The Doom Bar in Cornwall claimed two ships, Island Maid and Angele, the latter killing the entire crew except the captain
1912 First Balkan War: The Serbian Army captures Bitola, ending the five-century-long Ottoman rule of Macedonia
1916 Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures
1941 World War II: Battle between HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran. The two ships sink each other off the coast of Western Australia, with the loss of 645 Australians and about 77 German seamen
1942 World War II: Battle of Stalingrad – Soviet Union forces under General Georgy Zhukov launch the Operation Uranus counterattacks at Stalingrad, turning the tide of the battle in the USSR's favor
1942 Mutesa II is crowned the 35th and last Kabaka (king) of Buganda, prior to the restoration of the kingdom in 1993
1943 Holocaust: Nazis liquidate Janowska concentration camp in Lemberg (Lviv), western Ukraine, murdering at least 6,000 Jews after a failed uprising and mass escape attempt
1944 World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive, aimed at selling US$14 billion in war bonds to help pay for the war effort
1944 World War II: Thirty members of the Luxembourgish resistance defend the town of Vianden against a larger Waffen-SS attack in the Battle of Vianden
1946 Afghanistan, Iceland and Sweden join the United Nations
1950 US General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes Supreme Commander of NATO-Europe
1952 Greek Field Marshal Alexander Papagos becomes the 152nd Prime Minister of Greece
1954 Télé Monte Carlo, Europe's oldest private television channel, is launched by Prince Rainier III
1955 National Review publishes its first issue
1959 The Ford Motor Company announces the discontinuation of the unpopular Edsel
1967 The establishment of TVB, the first wireless commercial television station in Hong Kong
1969 Apollo program: Apollo 12 astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum (the "Ocean of Storms") and become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon
1969 Association football player Pelé scores his 1,000th goal
1977 TAP Portugal Flight 425 crashes in the Madeira Islands, killing 131
1979 Iran hostage crisis: Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran
1984 San Juanico disaster: A series of explosions at the Pemex petroleum storage facility at San Juan Ixhuatepec in Mexico City starts a major fire and kills about 500 people
1985 Cold War: In Geneva, U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time
1985 Pennzoil wins a US$10.53 billion judgment against Texaco, in the largest civil verdict in the history of the United States, stemming from Texaco executing a contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil had entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Getty
1985 Police in Baling, Malaysia, lay siege to houses occupied by an Islamic sect of about 400 people led by Ibrahim Mahmud
1988 Serbian communist representative and future Serbian and Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević publicly declares that Serbia is under attack from Albanian separatists in Kosovo as well as internal treachery within Yugoslavia and a foreign conspiracy to destroy Serbia and Yugoslavia
1990 Pop group Milli Vanilli are stripped of their Grammy Award because the duo did not sing at all on the Girl You Know It's True album. Session musicians had provided all the vocals
1994 In the United Kingdom, the first National Lottery draw is held. A £1 ticket gave a one-in-14-million chance of correctly guessing the winning six out of 49 numbers
1996 Lt. Gen. Maurice Baril of Canada arrives in Africa to lead a multi-national policing force in Zaire
1998 Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee begins impeachment hearings against U.S. President Bill Clinton
1998 Vincent van Gogh's Portrait of the Artist Without Beard sells at auction for US$71.5 million
1999 Shenzhou 1: The People's Republic of China launches its first Shenzhou spacecraft
2002 The Greek oil tanker Prestige splits in half and sinks off the coast of Galicia, releasing over 20 million US gallons (76,000 m³) of oil in the largest environmental disaster in Spanish and Portuguese history
2004 The Malice at the Palace: The worst brawl in NBA history, Ron Artest suspended 86 games (rest of season), Stephen Jackson suspended 30 games
2010 The first of four explosions takes place at the Pike River Mine in New Zealand; 29 people are killed in the nation's worst mining disaster since 1914
2013 A double suicide bombing at the Iranian embassy in Beirut kills 23 people and injures 160 others