Born on November 21

1495 John Bale an English churchman, historian and controversialist, and Bishop of Ossory. He wrote the oldest known historical verse drama in English , and developed and published a very extensive list of the works of British authors down to his own time, just as the monastic libraries were being dispersed. His unhappy disposition and habit of quarreling earned him the nickname "bilious Bale"
1537 Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo 4th Duke of Alba a commander in the Spanish army during the Eighty Years' War.
1567 Anne de Xainctonge the founder of the Society of the Sisters of Saint Ursula of the Blessed Virgin and has been declared a Venerable by the Roman Catholic Church.
1617 Tosa Mitsuoki a Japanese painter.
1643 René-Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France
1689 Jacques I Prince of Monaco count of Thorigny, Prince of Monaco as Jacques I and the fourth Duke of Valentinois from 1731 until 1733.
1692 Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni an Italian poet and librettist. As a poet Frugoni was one of the best of the school of the Arcadian Academy, and his lyrics and pastorals had great facility and elegance. His collected works were published at Parma in 10 volumes in 1799, and a more complete edition appeared at Lucca in the same year in 15 volumes
1694 Voltaire a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day
1710 Paolo Renier a Venetian statesman, the 119th, and penultimate, Doge of Venice. He was considered a good orator and tactician, and served as ambassador to Constantinople and to Vienna. His election as Doge was unpopular, and he was the subject of numerous menacing letters at the time. Renier was succeeded as Doge by Ludovico Manin, who would be the last Doge of Venice. He married Giustina Dona in 1733, and Margherita Delmaz in 1751
1718 Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg a German music critic, music theorist and composer. He was friendly and active with many figures of the Enlightenment of the 18th century
1729 Josiah Bartlett an American physician and statesman, delegate to the Continental Congress for New Hampshire and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was later Chief Justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court of Judicature and Governor of the state
1740 Józef Klemens Czartoryski a Polish nobleman who owned the Korets Castle. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle, awarded in 1767
1741 Cristfried Ganander a Finnish compiler of folk culture, a priest and an 18th-century lexicographer. Ganander's greatest achievement was the compilation of the first fully extensive Finnish-language dictionary which was, however, unpublished. He was also a collector of folk culture well before Elias Lönnrot. His most well-known published work is Mythologia Fennica in 1789, a reference book of folk religion. He also published some poetry and worked as a teacher
1753 Count Ludwig von Cobenzl a diplomat and politician of the Habsburg Monarchy.
1758 Nikolai Nikolev a Russian poet and playwright.
1760 Joseph Plumb Martin a soldier in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, holding the rank of private for most of the war. His published narrative of his experiences, re-discovered in the 1950s, has become a valuable resource for historians in understanding the conditions of a common soldier of that era, as well as the battles in which Martin participated
1761 Dorothea Jordan an Anglo-Irish actress, courtesan, and the mistress and companion of the future King William IV of the United Kingdom, for 20 years while he was Duke of Clarence. Together they had ten illegitimate children, all of whom took the surname FitzClarence
1768 Friedrich Schleiermacher a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity. He also became influential in the evolution of Higher Criticism, and his work forms part of the foundation of the modern field of hermeneutics. Because of his profound impact on subsequent Christian thought, he is often called the "Father of Modern Liberal Theology" and is considered an early leader in liberal Christianity. The Neo-Orthodoxy movement of the twentieth century, typically seen to be spearheaded by Karl Barth, was in many ways an attempt to challenge his influence
1785 William Beaumont a surgeon in the U.S. Army who became known as the "Father of Gastric Physiology" following his research on human digestion
1787 Samuel Cunard a British Canadian shipping magnate, born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, who founded the Cunard Line. He was the son of a master carpenter and timber merchant who had fled the American Revolution and settled in Halifax
1787 Bryan Procter an English poet.
1790 Edmund Lyons 1st Baron Lyons a British naval commander and diplomat who led a distinguished career in the Royal Navy, culminating with the Crimean War and his appointment as Commander of the Black Sea Fleet. He also held various diplomatic posts, including ambassadorial positions in Sweden, Switzerland and to the newly established court of King Otto of Greece
1792 Paul of Taganrog The Blessed starets Saint Paul of Taganrog dramatically influenced the belief in God and spiritual outlook of inhabitants of Taganrog, Don Land, South of Russia and Ukraine. A plain layman, who lived in Taganrog in the 19th century, he conciliated love and worship of Russian Orthodox Christians, who flowed to him for a piece of advice and spiritual support
1796 Jean Zuléma Amussat a French surgeon.
1798 Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui a French economist. His most important contributions were made in labour economics, economic history and especially the history of economic thought, in which field his 1837 treatise has been the first major work. He was the son of French Girondin politician Jean Dominique Blanqui and the elder brother of the revolutionary, Louis Auguste Blanqui
1798 John Clements Wickham a Scottish explorer, naval officer, magistrate and administrator. He was first officer on HMS Beagle during its second survey mission, 1831–1836, under captain Robert FitzRoy. The young naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin was a supernumerary on the ship, and his journal was published as The Voyage of the Beagle. After that expedition, Wickham was promoted to Commander and made captain of the Beagle on its third voyage, from 1837 and conducted various maritime expeditions and hydrographic surveys along the Australian coastline
1804 Wilhelm Waiblinger a German romantic poet, mostly remembered today in connection with Friedrich Hölderlin. After he had attended Gymnasium Illustre in Stuttgart, he was a student at the seminary of Tübingen in the 1820s, when Hölderlin, already mentally ill, lived there as a recluse in a carpenter's house. Waiblinger, who used to visit the older poet and take him out for walks, left an account of Hölderlin's life then, Hölderlins Leben, Dichtung und Wahnsinn. In the late 1820s, Waiblinger left Tübingen for Italy, dying at the age of 25 in Rome, where he is buried in the Protestant Cemetery
1805 Johannes Classen a German educator and classical philologist.
1808 Camillo Róndani an Italian entomologist noted for his studies of Diptera.
1817 Richard B. Garnett a career United States Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. He was killed during Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg
1818 Lewis H. Morgan a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer. He is best known for his work on kinship and social structure, his theories of social evolution, and his ethnography of the Iroquois. Interested in what holds societies together, he proposed the concept that the earliest human domestic institution was the matrilineal clan, not the patriarchal family
1819 Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann a Polish-born Danish painter. She was married to the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau
1821 Carl Bolle a German naturalist and collector.
1829 Théophane Vénard a French Catholic missionary to Indo-China. He was a member of the Paris Foreign Missions Society. He was beatified in company with thirty-three other Catholic martyrs, most of whom were natives of Tonkin, Cochin-China, or China. Pope John Paul II canonized him, with nineteen other martyrs, in 1988
1830 Jules-Émile Péan one of the great French surgeons of the 19th century.
1831 Helgo Zettervall a Swedish architect and professor of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. He is best known for his drastic restorations of churches and other buildings around Sweden. He was father to Folke Zettervall. He was chief of Överintendentsämbetet 1882–97
1834 Hetty Green an American businesswoman and financier known as "the richest woman in America" during the Gilded Age. Known for both her wealth and her miserliness, she was the lone woman to amass a fortune when other major financiers were men
1840 Victoria Princess Royal the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert. She was created Princess Royal of the United Kingdom in 1841. She became German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. After her husband's death, she became widely known as Empress Frederick
1841 Luigi D'Albertis a flamboyant Italian naturalist and explorer who, in 1876, became the first person to chart the Fly River in Papua New Guinea. He took eight weeks to steam some 580 miles up the Fly River in an Australian launch, the Neva. On board as engineer was young Lawrence Hargrave, later to become an aviation pioneer. D'Albertis kept a pet python on board to prevent his motley crew from pilfering the stores. He also fired off exploding rockets to keep any hostile natives at bay. His expedition collected specimens of birds, plants and insects. The Neva forced its way upstream until brought to a halt by the shallows. They then steamed downriver to a tributary called the Alice, and d'Albertis cajoled his crew up this river with promises of gold. Eventually stricken by malaria and crippled by rheumatism in both legs, he admitted defeat. He tried once again in the following year, but did not reach as far as before, and returned to Europe. An excellent account of d'Albertis' expeditions up the Fly in the Neva and his various political and personal problems with his contemporaries and the inhabitants of Papua are told in Goode, 1977 Rape of the Fly
1843 Gaston Tissandier a French chemist, meteorologist, aviator and editor. Adventurer could be added to the list of his titles, as he managed to escape besieged Paris by balloon in September 1870. He founded and edited the scientific magazine La Nature and wrote several books
1848 Ignatius Ephrem II Rahmani Patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church from 1898 to 1929 and a Syriac scholar.
1849 Johan August Brinell a Swedish Mechanical Engineer.
1849 Paul Rée a German author and philosopher, and friend of Friedrich Nietzsche.
1851 Carl Locher a Danish realist painter who from an early age became a member of the Skagen group of painters.
1851 Désiré-Joseph Mercier a Belgian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Mechelen from 1906 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1907. Mercier is noted for his staunch resistance to the German occupation of 1914–1918
1852 Francisco Tárrega a Spanish composer and classical guitarist of the Romantic period.
1853 Hussein Kamel of Egypt the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt.
1854 Pope Benedict XV Pope from 3 September 1914 to his death in 1922. His pontificate was largely overshadowed by World War I and its political, social and humanitarian consequences in Europe
1857 Manuel Estrada Cabrera President of Guatemala from 1898 to 1920. He was lawyer with no military background and as President, he was a strong ruler, who modernised the country’s industry and transport, but only by granting concessions to the American-owned United Fruit Company, whose influence on the government was felt by many to be excessive. Estrada Cabrera used increasingly brutal methods to assert his authority, including armed strike-breaking, and the general elections were effectively controlled by him. He retained power for 22 years through controlled elections in 1904, 1910, and 1916, and was eventually removed from office when the national assembly declared him mentally incompetent, and he was jailed for corruption
1857 Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro usually referred to as Columbano, was a Portuguese Realist painter. Usually considered the greatest Portuguese painter of the 19th century, he has been compared to the likes of Wilhelm Leibl and Thomas Eakins