Born on November 23

911 Burchard I Duke of Swabia the Duke of Alamannia from 909 to his death and margrave of Rhaetia, as well as Count in the Thurgau and Baar. Born between 855 and 860, he was the son of Adalbert II, Count in the Thurgau. He himself married Liutgard of Saxony
912 Otto I Holy Roman Emperor German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until his death in 973. The oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda, Otto was "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy"
1221 Alfonso X of Castile the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death. During the Imperial election of 1257, a dissident faction chose him to be King of the Romans on 1 April. He renounced his imperial claim in 1275, and in creating an alliance with England in 1254 his claim on Gascony also
1306 John de Bohun 5th Earl of Hereford born in St Clement's, Oxford to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, a daughter of Edward I of England.
1402 Jean de Dunois the illegitimate son of Louis I, Duke of Orléans, by Mariette d'Enghien. His nickname, the "Bastard of Orléans" , was a term of respect, since it acknowledged him as a first cousin to the king and acting head of a cadet branch of the royal family during his half-brother's captivity. In 1439 he received the county of Dunois from his half-brother, Charles, Duke of Orléans, and later king Charles VII made him count of Longueville
1417 William FitzAlan 16th Earl of Arundel Baron Maltravers KG.
1496 Clément Marot a French poet of the Renaissance period.
1553 Prospero Alpini an Italian physician and botanist from the Republic of Venice.
1609 Sophia Eleonore of Saxony a Duchess of Saxony by birth and the Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1627 to 1661 through her marriage to Landgrave George She was the eldest surviving child of John George I, Elector of Saxony, and Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia. Her daughter Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt became Electress of the Palatinate
1616 John Wallis given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus. Between 1643 and 1689 he served as chief cryptographer for Parliament and, later, the royal court. He is also credited with introducing the symbol for infinity. He similarly used for an infinitesimal. Asteroid 31982 Johnwallis was named after him
1632 Jean Mabillon a French Benedictine monk and scholar, considered the founder of palaeography and diplomatics.
1641 Anthonie Heinsius a Dutch statesman who served as Grand Pensionary of Holland from 1689 to his death in 1720.
1643 Eberhard von Danckelmann a German official who served as Prime Minister of Brandenburg-Prussia from 1692-97.
1674 Pierre Dumage a French Baroque organist and composer. His first music teacher was most likely his father, organist of the Beauvais Cathedral. At some point during his youth Dumage moved to Paris and studied under Louis Marchand. He also befriended Nicolas Lebègue, who in 1703 procured for Dumage a position of organist of the Saint-Quentin collegiate church. In 1710 Dumage was appointed titular organist of the Laon Cathedral. Due to strained relations with his superiors in the cathedral chapter, Dumage left on 30 March 1719, at the age of 45, and became a civil servant. He apparently neither played nor composed music professionally until his death, 32 years later
1687 Jean Baptiste Senaillé a French born Baroque composer and violin virtuoso. His father was a member of Les Vingt-quatre Violons du Roi. Senaillé studied under Jean-Baptiste Anet, Giovanni Antonio Piani and in Italy under Tomaso Antonio Vitali and imported Italian musical techniques and pieces into the French court. He wrote around 50 violin sonatas. He is most well known for a fast 2/4 movement from one of these sonatas, Allegro Spiritoso, which has had versions published transcribed for a wide variety of instruments, from violoncello to bassoon to euphonium
1690 Ernst Johann von Biron a Duke of Courland and Semigallia and regent of the Russian Empire.
1705 Thomas Birch an English historian.
1707 Anna Karolina Orzelska an adventuress and Polish szlachcianka , the illegitimate daughter of August II the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by Henriette Rénard.
1709 Julien Offray de La Mettrie a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his work L'homme machine "Machine man". or "The Human Mechanism"
1719 Spranger Barry an Irish actor.
1737 Ali Mirza of Kakheti a prince of the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty of the Kingdom of Kakheti who ruled in eastern Georgian provinces – Kartli and Kakheti – for the shah of Iran in the late 1730s. Like his father, King David II , and brothers, Ali-Mirza was a convert to Islam. As a ruler of Kakheti, he is sometimes known in modern historiography by his Christian name Alexander and ascribed the regnal number "Third". Despite his power being derived from the shah, Ali Mirza followed the established Georgian tradition to style himself as "king of kings"
1743 Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne a French officer named by Napoleon "first grenadier of France". He was also a celtomaniac antiquarian who introduced the words "dolmen" and "menhir" into general archaeological usage
1749 Edward Rutledge an American politician, a slaveholder and youngest signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. He later served as the 39th Governor of South Carolina
1753 Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas a French general.
1754 Abraham Baldwin an American politician, Patriot, and Founding Father from the U.S. state of Georgia. Baldwin was a Georgia representative in the Continental Congress and served in the United States House of Representatives and Senate after the adoption of the Constitution. Baldwin was the founding father of the University of Georgia, first state-charted public institution of higher education in the United States and served as its first president
1754 Stanisław Poniatowski (1754–1833) a Polish nobleman, a member of the wealthy Poniatowski family and a close relative to the last king of Poland, Stanisław II August. He was the Commander of the Foot Guard of the Crown , Grand Treasurer of Lithuania and Starost of Stryj
1755 Thomas Lord an English professional cricketer who played first-class cricket from 1787 to 1802. He made a brief comeback, playing in one further match in 1815. Overall, Lord made 90 known appearances in first-class cricket. He was mostly associated with Middlesex and with Marylebone Cricket Club as a ground staff bowler
1760 François-Noël Babeuf a French political agitator and journalist of the French Revolutionary period. His newspaper Le tribun du people was best known for his advocacy for the poor and calling for a popular revolt against the Directory, the government of France. He was a leading advocate for democracy, the abolition of private property and the equality of results. He angered the authorities who were clamping down hard on their radical enemies. In spite of the efforts of his Jacobin friends to save him, Babeuf was executed for his role in the Conspiracy of the Equals
1760 Christian Wilhelm Ahlwardt a German classical philologist. He was the father of orientalist Wilhelm Ahlwardt
1764 Gustav Hugo a German jurist.
1765 Thomas Attwood (composer) an English composer and organist.
1772 Augustus Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, and the author of one of the first modern novels to treat of same-sex love. He was the maternal grandfather of Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria
1781 Theodor Valentin Volkmar a German politician and two-time mayor of Marburg, from 1833 until 1835 and again from December 1835 until his retirement due to ill health November 1846.
1782 Giulietta Guicciardi an Austrian countess and briefly a piano student of Ludwig van Beethoven. He dedicated his Piano Sonata 14 to her, which is now commonly known as the Moonlight Sonata
1785 Jan Roothaan Very Rev. Jan Philipp Roothaan, S.J. was a Dutch Jesuit, elected 21st Superior-General of the Society of Jesus
1786 František Tkadlík a Czech portrait painter and draftsman.
1792 Václav Kliment Klicpera a Czech playwright, author, and poet. He was one of the first presenters of Czech drama, and was especially influential in the foundation of comedic Czech theatre
1798 Klementyna Hoffmanowa a Polish popular literary writer, translator, editor, and one of Poland's first writers of children's literature. She co-organized and chaired the Patriotic Charity Association. She was the first woman in Poland to support herself from writing and teaching, and considered herself primarily a writer
1800 Mikhail Pogodin a Russian historian and journalist who, jointly with Nikolay Ustryalov, dominated the national historiography between the death of Nikolay Karamzin in 1826 and the rise of Sergey Solovyov in the 1850s. He is best remembered as a staunch proponent of the Normanist theory of Russian statehood
1801 Édouard Spach a French botanist.
1803 Theodore Dwight Weld one of the leading architects of the American abolitionist movement during its formative years, from 1830 through 1844.
1804 Franklin Pierce the 14th President of the United States , whose inability as president to calm tensions over slavery kept the country on the path to the Civil War. Genial and well-spoken, Pierce was a northern Democrat who saw the abolitionist movement as a fundamental threat to the unity of the nation. His polarizing actions in championing and signing the Kansas–Nebraska Act and enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act failed to stem intersectional conflict, setting the stage for Southern secession, and leaving him widely regarded as one of the worst presidents in U.S. history
1805 Mary Seacole a Jamaican-born woman of Scottish and Creole descent who set up a "British Hotel" behind the lines during the Crimean War, which she described as "a mess-table and comfortable quarters for sick and convalescent officers," and provided succour for wounded servicemen on the battlefield. She was posthumously awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit in 1991. In 2004 she was voted the greatest black Briton
1808 Cardale Babington an English botanist and archaeologist. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1851
1818 József Szlávy a Hungarian politician who served as prime minister from 1872 to 1874, as Speaker of the House of Representatives of Hungary from 3 April 1879 to 12 April 1880 and as Speaker of the House of Magnates from 19 September 1894 to 3 October 1896.
1820 Isaac Todhunter best known today for the books he wrote on mathematics and its history.
1821 Charles Méryon a French artist, who worked almost entirely in etching, as he suffered from colour-blindness. Although now little-known in the English-speaking world, he is generally recognised as the most significant etcher of 19th century France. He also suffered from mental illness, dying in an asylum. His most famous work is a series of views of Paris
1823 Nikolai Bunge the preeminent architect of Russian capitalism under Alexander III. He was a distinguished economist, statesman, and academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences
1827 Karl Maximovich a Russian botanist. Maximovich spent most of his life studying the flora of the countries he had visited in the Far East, and naming many new species. He worked at the Saint Petersburg Botanical Gardens from 1852 as curator of the herbarium collection, becoming Director in 1869
1833 Hijikata Hisamoto a politician and cabinet minister in the pre-war Empire of Japan.