November 23 events in history

1174 Saladin enters Damascus, and adds it to his domain
1248 Conquest of Seville by Christian troops under King Ferdinand III of Castile
1499 Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England
1510 First campaign of the Ottoman Empire against the Kingdom of Imereti (modern western Georgia). Ottoman armies sack the capital Kutaisi and burn Gelati Monastery
1531 The Second War of Kappel results in the dissolution of the Protestant alliance in Switzerland
1644 John Milton publishes Areopagitica, a pamphlet decrying censorship
1733 The start of the 1733 slave insurrection on St. John in what was then the Danish West Indies
1808 French and Poles defeat the Spanish at battle of Tudela
1810 Sarah Booth debuts at the Royal Opera House
1863 American Civil War: Battle of Chattanooga begins: Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant reinforce troops at Chattanooga, Tennessee, and counter-attack Confederate troops
1867 The Manchester Martyrs are hanged in Manchester, England, for killing a police officer while freeing two Irish nationalists from custody
1876 Corrupt Tammany Hall leader William Magear Tweed (better known as Boss Tweed) is delivered to authorities in New York City after being captured in Spain
1889 The first jukebox goes into operation at the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco
1890 King William III of the Netherlands dies without a male heir and a special law is passed to allow his daughter Princess Wilhelmina to succeed him
1910 Johan Alfred Ander becomes the last person to be executed in Sweden
1914 Mexican Revolution: The last of U.S. forces withdraw from Veracruz, occupied seven months earlier in response to the Tampico Affair
1918 Heber J. Grant succeeds Joseph F. Smith as the seventh president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
1924 Edwin Hubble's scientific discovery that Andromeda, previously believed to be a nebula within our galaxy, is actually another galaxy, and that the Milky Way is only one of many such galaxies in the universe, was first published in a newspaper
1934 An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, well within Ethiopian territory. This leads to the Abyssinia Crisis
1936 Life magazine is reborn as a photo magazine and enjoys instant success
1939 World War II: HMS Rawalpindi is sunk by the German battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau
1940 World War II: Romania becomes a signatory of the Tripartite Pact, officially joining the Axis powers
1943 World War II: The Deutsche Opernhaus on Bismarckstraße in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg is destroyed. It will eventually be rebuilt in 1961 and be called the Deutsche Oper Berlin
1943 World War II: Tarawa and Makin atolls fall to American forces
1946 French naval bombardment of Hai Phong, Vietnam, kills thousands of civilians. This was to lead to the First Indochina War
1955 The Cocos Islands are transferred from the control of the United Kingdom to that of Australia
1959 French President Charles de Gaulle declares in a speech in Strasbourg his vision for "Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals"
1963 The BBC broadcasts "An Unearthly Child" (starring William Hartnell), the first episode of the science-fiction television serial of the same name and the first episode of Doctor Who, which is now the world's longest running science fiction drama
1971 Representatives of the People's Republic of China attend the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council, for the first time
1972 The Soviet Union makes its final attempt at successfully launching the N1 rocket
1974 Sixty Ethiopian politicians, aristocrats, military officers, and other persons are executed by the provisional military government
1976 Apneist Jacques Mayol is the first man to reach a depth of 100 m undersea without breathing equipment
1978 Cyclone kills about 1000 people in Eastern Sri Lanka
1979 In Dublin, Ireland, Provisional Irish Republican Army member Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten
1980 A series of earthquakes in southern Italy kills approximately 3,000 people
1981 Iran–Contra affair: Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), giving the Central Intelligence Agency the authority to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua
1985 Gunmen hijack EgyptAir Flight 648 while en route from Athens to Cairo. When the plane lands in Malta, Egyptian commandos storm the aircraft, but 60 people die in the raid
1992 The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, is introduced at COMDEX in Las Vegas, Nevada
1993 Rachel Whiteread wins both the £20,000 Turner Prize award for best British modern artist and the £40,000 K Foundation art award for the worst artist of the year
1996 Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 is hijacked, then crashes into the Indian Ocean off the coast of Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125
2001 The Convention on Cybercrime is signed in Budapest, Hungary
2003 Rose Revolution: Georgian president Eduard Shevardnadze resigns following weeks of mass protests over flawed elections
2004 The Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi, the largest religious building in Georgia, is consecrated
2005 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is elected president of Liberia and becomes the first woman to lead an African country
2006 A series of bombings kills at least 215 people and injures 257 others in Sadr City, making it the second deadliest sectarian attack since the beginning of the Iraq War in 2003
2007 MS Explorer, a cruise liner carrying 154 people, sinks in the Antarctic Ocean south of Argentina after hitting an iceberg near the South Shetland Islands. There are no fatalities
2009 The Maguindanao massacre occurs in Ampatuan, Maguindanao, Philippines
2010 Bombardment of Yeonpyeong: North Korean artillery attack kills two civilians and two marines on Yeonpyeong Island, South Korea
2011 Arab Spring: After 11 months of protests in Yemen, Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh signs a deal to transfer power to the vice president, in exchange for legal immunity