Born on November 24

1273 Alphonso Earl of Chester the ninth child of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile. During his lifetime, he was first in line to his father's throne of England and to his mother's county of Ponthieu in France
1394 Charles Duke of Orléans Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. He was also Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise and of Blois, Lord of Coucy, and the inheritor of Asti in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. He is now remembered as an accomplished medieval poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, written in both French and English, during his 25 years spent as a prisoner of war
1427 John Stafford 1st Earl of Wiltshire an English nobleman, the youngest son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham. In 1461 he was made a Knight of the Bath
1472 Pietro Torrigiano an Italian sculptor of the Florentine school. He was important in introducing Renaissance art to England, but his career was adversely affected by his violent temperament
1583 Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar Spanish poet, scholar and painter in the Siglo de Oro.
1615 Philip William Elector Palatine Count Palatine of Neuburg from 1653 to 1690, Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1679 and Elector of the Palatinate from 1685 to 1690. Son of Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg and Magdalene of Bavaria
1630 Étienne Baluze a French scholar, also known as Stephanus Baluzius.
1632 Baruch Spinoza a Dutch philosopher. The breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until many years after his death. By laying the groundwork for the 18th-century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and, arguably, the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy. His magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes's mind–body dualism, has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important thinkers. In the Ethics, "Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, and one in which the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are finally turned against themselves and destroyed entirely." Philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said of all contemporary philosophers, "You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all."
1642 Anne Hilarion de Tourville a French naval commander who served under King Louis XIV. He was made Marshal of France in 1693
1655 Charles XI of Sweden King of Sweden from 1660 until his death, in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish empire.
1689 Frans van Mieris the Younger a Dutch painter.
1712 Ali II ibn Hussein the fourth leader of the Husainid Dynasty and the ruler of Tunisia from 1759 until his death in 1782.
1713 Junípero Serra a Spanish Franciscan friar who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, which at the time were in Alta California of the Las Californias Province in New Spain. He began in San Diego on July 16, 1769, and established his headquarters near Monterey, California, at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo
1713 Laurence Sterne an Anglo-Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman. He is best known for his novels The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy; but he also published many sermons, wrote memoirs, and was involved in local politics. Sterne died in London after years of fighting consumption
1714 Thomas Zebrowski a Jesuit architect, mathematician, and astronomer. He was instrumental in establishing and funding the Observatory of Vilnius University. Marcin Odlanicki Poczobutt was among his students
1724 Maria Amalia of Saxony a princess from the House of Wettin, the daughter of Augustus III of Poland and the wife of Charles III of Spain; she was the Queen consort of Naples and Sicily from 1738 till 1759 and then Queen consort of Spain from 1759 until her death in 1760. The mother of thirteen children, she enjoyed a loving relationship with her husband. A popular consort, she oversaw the construction of the Caserta Palace outside Naples as well as various other projects in her husband's domains. Moving to Spain in 1759, she then set about the improvements to the Royal Palace of Madrid but died of tuberculosis before its completion. Maria Amalia was politically active and openly participated in state affairs in both Naples and Spain
1729 Charles Hector comte d'Estaing a French general, and admiral. He began his service as a soldier in the War of the Austrian Succession, briefly spending time as a prisoner of war of the British during the Seven Years' War. Naval exploits during the latter war prompted him to change branches of service, and he transferred to the French Navy
1730 Alexander Suvorov the last Generalissimo of the Russian Empire.
1731 Maria Fortunata d'Este a Modenese princess by birth and a princess of the blood of France by marriage. By her marriage to a second cousin Louis François Joseph de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, she became the Countess of La Marche and later the Princess of Conti and was a member of the French court of Louis XV and Louis XVI. She was the last Princess of Conti and died without issue
1740 John Bacon (sculptor) a British sculptor.
1742 Antonio de Capmany y Montpalau born at Barcelona.
1745 Maria Luisa of Spain Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the spouse of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor.
1761 Joshua Brookes a British anatomist and naturalist.
1762 Sousa Caldas a Colonial Brazilian poet, priest and orator, patron of the 34th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
1766 Friedrich Weinbrenner a German architect and city planner admired for his mastery of classical style.
1774 Thomas Dick (scientist) a Scottish church minister, science teacher and writer, known for his works on astronomy and practical philosophy, combining science and Christianity, and arguing for an harmony between the two.
1783 Victor Henri Joseph Brahain Ducange a French novelist and dramatist, born at the Hague, where his father was secretary to the French embassy.
1783 Allen Trimble a Federalist and National Republican politician from Ohio. Son of James Trimble and Jane Allen. He served as the eighth and tenth Governor of Ohio, first concurrently as Senate Speaker, later elected twice in his own right
1784 Zachary Taylor the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, Taylor was a career officer in the United States Army, rising to the rank of major general. His status as a national hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican-American War won him election to the White House despite his vague political beliefs. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died sixteen months into his term, before making any progress on the status of slavery, which had been inflaming tensions in Congress. Taylor was born to a prominent family of planters who migrated westward from Virginia to Kentucky in his youth. He was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Army in 1808 and made a name for himself as a captain in the War of 1812. He climbed the ranks establishing military forts along the Mississippi River and entered the Black Hawk War as a colonel in 1832. His success in the Second Seminole War attracted national attention and earned him the nickname "Old Rough and Ready"
1785 Philipp August Böckh a German classical scholar and antiquarian.
1801 Lise Noblet a French ballet dancer. She débuted at the Ballet de l'Opéra de Paris in 1819 in a pas de deux with Albert, then danced the principal roles in the ballets of Pierre Gardel. She left the Opéra in 1841 on the death of her faithful companion, général Claparède
1801 Ludwig Bechstein a German writer and collector of folk fairy tales.
1811 Ulrich Ochsenbein a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council.
1812 Xavier Hommaire de Hell a French geographer, engineer and traveller who carried out research in Turkey, southern Russia and Persia.
1815 Grace Darling an English lighthouse keeper's daughter, famed for participating in the rescue of survivors from the shipwrecked Forfarshire in 1838.
1816 Llewellynn Jewitt a noted illustrator, engraver, natural scientist and author of The Ceramic Art of Great Britain. His output was prodigious and covered a large range of interests
1817 Fritz Spindler a German pianist and composer, especially of works for the piano. His output of more than 400 opus numbers includes salon pieces, chamber music, symphonies and other large forms, and over 300 piano pieces, but is best remembered if at all today for a much-anthologized Sonatina
1821 Henry Thomas Buckle an English historian, author of an unfinished History of Civilization and a very strong amateur chess player.
1823 Georg Heinrich Mettenius a German botanist born in Frankfurt am Main. He was son-in-law to botanist Alexander Braun
1825 Julia Princess of Battenberg the wife of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, the mother of Alexander, Prince of Bulgaria, and ancestress to the current generations of the British and the Spanish royal families.
1826 Carlo Collodi an Italian children's writer known for the world-renowned fairy tale novel, The Adventures of Pinocchio.
1833 Antoine Labelle a Roman Catholic priest and the person principally responsible for the settlement of the Laurentians. He is also referred to as "Curé Labelle" and sometimes, the "King of the North"
1833 Jovan Jovanović Zmaj one of the best-known Serbian poets. He was a physician by profession, like his literary predecessor writer Jovan Stejić
1839 Leo Mechelin a Finnish professor, statesman, senator and liberal reformer. A leading defender of the autonomy of the Grand Duchy of Finland, and of the rights of women and minorities, Mechelin's 1905–1908 government made Finland the first nation in the world with the universal right to vote and to be elected. His period in office also saw the introduction of the freedom of expression, the press, and of assembly
1843 David Zvi Hoffmann an Orthodox Rabbi and Torah Scholar. Born in Verbó in 1843, he attended various Yeshivas in his native town before he entered the college at Pressburg, from which he graduated in 1865. He then studied philosophy, history, and Oriental languages at Vienna and Berlin, taking his doctor's degree in 1871 from the University of Tübingen. His rabbinical training was at the hands of Moshe Schick and Azriel Hildesheimer
1844 Jules Delsart a 19th-century French cellist and teacher. He is best known for his arrangement for cello and piano of César Franck's Violin Sonata in A major. Musicologist Lynda MacGregor described Delsart as "one of the foremost French cellists of the period, with faultless technique, a precise bow and a sweet, though not large, tone." He was the owner of the 1689 'Archinto' Stradivari
1844 Friedrich Jolly a German neurologist and psychiatrist who was a native of Heidelberg, and the son of physicist Philipp von Jolly.
1845 Nina Grieg a Danish-Norwegian lyric soprano. She was the first cousin of composer Edvard Grieg, whom she married
1849 Frances Hodgson Burnett an English playwright and author. She is best known for her children's stories, in particular Little Lord Fauntleroy , A Little Princess , and The Secret Garden
1857 Miklós Kovács (poet) a Hungarian Slovene cantor and writer.