Born on November 25

902 Emperor Taizong of Liao the second emperor of the Khitan Empire.
1274 Catherine of Courtenay Titular Empress of Constantinople from 1283 to her death in 1307. In 1301, she became the second wife of Charles of Valois, by whom she had one son and three daughters; the eldest of these, Catherine II of Valois, Princess of Achaea succeeded her as titular empress
1328 Antipope Benedict XIII officially considered by the Catholic Church to be an antipope.
1350 Katherine Swynford the third wife of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, a son of King Edward III. She had been the Duke's lover for many years before their marriage. The couple's children, born before the marriage, were later legitimated during the reign of the Duke's nephew, Richard II, although with the provision that not they nor their descendants could ever claim the throne of England
1454 Catherine Cornaro Queen of Cyprus from 26 August 1474 to 26 February 1489 and declared a "Daughter of Saint Mark" in order that Venice could claim control of Cyprus after the death of her husband, James II.
1493 Osanna of Cattaro a Catholic visionary and anchoress from Cattaro. She was a teenage convert from Orthodoxy of Serbian descent from Montenegro. She became a Dominican tertiary and was posthumously venerated as a saint in Kotor. She was later beatified in 1934
1545 Ana de Jesús a Spanish Discalced Carmelite nun and writer. She was a close companion of Teresa of Avila, foundress of the Carmelite reform and served to establish new monasteries of the Order throughout Europe. Known as a mystic and for her writings on prayer, she has been declared Venerable by the Catholic Church
1562 Lope de Vega a Spanish playwright and poet. He was one of the key figures in the Spanish Golden Century of Baroque literature. His reputation in the world of Spanish literature is second only to that of Cervantes, while the sheer volume of his literary output is unequalled, making him one of the most prolific authors in the history of literature
1569 Friedrich Kettler Duke of Courland from 1587 to 1642.
1572 Daniel Sennert a renowned German physician and a prolific academic writer, especially in the field of alchemy or chemistry. He held the position of professor of medicine at the University of Wittenberg for many years
1577 Piet Pieterszoon Hein a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain.
1609 Henrietta Maria of France queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.
1637 Armand de Gramont Comte de Guiche a French nobleman, adventurer, and one of the greatest playboys of the 17th century.
1638 Catherine of Braganza Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles Catherine was born into the House of Braganza, the most senior noble house of Portugal, which became Portugal's royal house after Catherine's father, John, 8th Duke of Braganza, was proclaimed King John IV after deposing the House of Habsburg in 1640.
1666 Giuseppe Giovanni Battista Guarneri a violin maker from the prominent Guarneri family of luthiers who lived in Cremona, Italy.
1680 Ursula Katharina Lubomirska a Polish-German noblewoman and mistress of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. In 1722 she married Prince Frederick Louis of Württemberg-Winnental
1697 Maria Karolina Sobieska a Polish noble lady, daughter of Jakub Ludwik Sobieski. Known as Marie Charlotte or just Charlotte, she was the Princess of Turenne and later Duchess of Bouillon by marriage. Charlotte was the last surviving member of the House of Sobieski
1697 Gerhard Tersteegen a German Reformed religious writer, born at Moers, at that time the capital of a countship belonging to the house of Orange-Nassau , which formed a Protestant enclave in the midst of a Roman Catholic country.
1703 Jean-François Séguier a French astronomer and botanist from Nîmes.
1717 Alexander Sumarokov a Russian poet and playwright who single-handedly created classical theatre in Russia, thus assisting Mikhail Lomonosov to inaugurate the reign of classicism in Russian literature.
1722 Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz a botanist and a physician.
1735 Grzegorz Piramowicz a Polish Catholic priest, educator, writer, and philosopher. He was a member of the Commission of National Education and Society for Elementary Books, and one of the founders of the Society of Friends of the Constitution
1738 Thomas Abbt a German mathematician and writer.
1739 Philipp Matthäus Hahn a German pastor and inventor.
1752 Johann Friedrich Reichardt a German composer, writer and music critic.
1753 Robert Townsend (spy) a member of the Culper Ring during the American Revolution. With the aliases “Samuel Culper, Jr.” and “723,” Townsend operated in New York City and gathered information as a service to General George Washington. He is one of the least known operatives in the spy ring, once demanding that Abraham Woodhull, aka “Samuel Culper,” never tell his name to anyone, not even Washington
1758 John Armstrong Jr. an American soldier and statesman who was a delegate to the Continental Congress, U.S. Senator from New York, and Secretary of War
1763 Jean Germain Drouais born in Paris. His father, Francois Hubert Drouais, and his grandfather, Hubert Drouais, were well-known portrait painters; and it was from his father that he received his first artistic instruction
1778 Mary Anne Schimmelpenninck a British writer in the anti-slavery movement.
1783 Claude-Louis Mathieu a French mathematician and astronomer who began his career as an engineer. He worked with the Bureau des Longitudes and tried to determine the distance of the stars
1786 José María Queipo de Llano 7th Count of Toreno a nineteenth-century Spanish politician and historian. In Spain he is simply known as Conde de Toreno
1787 Franz Xaver Gruber best known for composing the music to Stille Nacht.
1802 Charles Coquelin a French economist.
1806 Charles marquis de La Valette a French politician.
1810 Nikolay Pirogov a prominent Russian scientist, medical doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is considered to be the founder of field surgery, and was one of the first surgeons in Europe to use ether as an anaesthetic. He was the first surgeon to use anaesthesia in a field operation , invented various kinds of surgical operations, and developed his own technique of using plaster casts to treat fractured bones. He is one of the most widely recognized Russian physicians
1814 Julius von Mayer a German physician and physicist and one of the founders of thermodynamics. He is best known for enunciating in 1841 one of the original statements of the conservation of energy or what is now known as one of the first versions of the first law of thermodynamics, namely that "energy can be neither created nor destroyed". In 1842, Mayer described the vital chemical process now referred to as oxidation as the primary source of energy for any living creature. His achievements were overlooked and priority for the discovery of the mechanical equivalent of heat was attributed to James Joule in the following year. He also proposed that plants convert light into chemical energy
1815 William Sawyer (politician) a lumber merchant and political figure in Quebec. He represented Compton in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1871 to 1886 as a Conservative
1816 Lewis Morris Rutherfurd an American lawyer and astronomer, and a pioneering astrophotographer.
1817 John Bigelow an American lawyer and statesman.
1820 Mikhail Dostoyevsky a Russian short story writer, publisher, literary critic and the elder brother of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The two of them were only a year apart in age and spent their childhood together. Mikhail was regarded by his family as an underachiever, particularly after his younger brother's achievements outshone his own
1823 Henry Wirz a Swiss-born Confederate officer in the American Civil War. He is best known for his command of Camp Sumter, the Confederate prisoner-of-war camp near Andersonville, Georgia; he was tried and executed after the war for conspiracy and murder relating to his command of the camp
1824 Antonio Ghislanzoni an Italian journalist, poet, and novelist who wrote librettos for Verdi, among other composers, of which the best known are Aida and the revised version of La forza del destino.
1824 Charles Verlat a Belgian painter from Antwerp. He was a pupil of Nicaise de Keyser, and studied at the Antwerp Academy
1828 Franjo Rački a Croatian historian, politician and writer. He compiled important collections of old Croatian diplomatic and historical documents, wrote some pioneering historical works, and was a key founder of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts
1830 Guido Baccelli an Italian physician and statesman. One of the most renowned Italian physicians of the late 19th Century, he was Minister of Education of the then young Kingdom of Italy for six times and once Minister of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce, for a total period of almost ten years, between 1881 and 1903. He was a teacher to Augusto Murri. Together with Italian surgeon Francesco Durante, Baccelli promoted the construction of the Policlinico Umberto I in Rome
1830 Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov an Imperial Russian statesman and the brother of Count Peter Andreyevich Shuvalov.
1830 Lina Morgenstern a German writer, educator, feminist and pacifist.
1835 Andrew Carnegie a Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He was also one of the highest profile philanthropists of his era and had given away almost 90 percent – amounting to, in 1919, $350 million – of his fortune to charities and foundations by the time of his death. His 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, and stimulated a wave of philanthropy
1838 Ivan Nechuy-Levytsky a well-known Ukrainian writer.
1840 Sava Grujić a Serbian military, diplomat and a Radical Party politician.