Died on November 25

311 Pope Peter of Alexandria 17th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of Mark. He is revered as a saint by the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Roman Catholic Church
559 Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi the first emperor of the Northern He was the second son of Eastern Wei's paramount general Gao Huan, and the death of his brother and Gao Huan's designated successor Gao Cheng in 549 became the regent of Eastern Wei. In 550, he forced Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei to yield the throne to him, ending Eastern Wei and starting Northern Qi
1034 Malcolm II of Scotland King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer"
1120 William Adelin the son of Henry I of England by his wife Matilda of Scotland, and was thus heir-apparent to the throne. His early death without issue caused a succession crisis, known in history as The Anarchy
1120 Richard d'Avranches 2nd Earl of Chester the son of Hugh, 1st Earl of Chester and Ermentrude of Clermont.
1127 Minamoto no Yoshimitsu a Minamoto clan samurai during Japan's Heian Period. His brother was the famous Minamoto no Yoshiie. Minamoto no Yoshimitsu is credited as the ancient progenitor of the Japanese martial art, Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu. Yoshimitsu is also known as Shinra Saburō
1185 Pope Lucius III born Ubaldo Allucingoli, reigned from 1 September 1181 to his death in 1185.
1199 Albert III Count of Habsburg Count of Habsburg and a progenitor of the royal House of Habsburg.
1314 John Balliol King of Scots from 1292 to 1296.
1374 Philip II Prince of Taranto Prince of Achaea and Taranto, and titular Emperor of Constantinople from 1364 to his death in 1374.
1418 Henry Beaufort 2nd Earl of Somerset the eldest son of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, and the grandson of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Katherine Swynford.
1456 Jacques Cœur a French merchant, one of the founders of the trade between France and the Levant.
1535 Bernard Wapowski a historian and the leading Polish cartographer of the 16th century, known as "the father of Polish cartography.".
1560 Andrea Doria a Genoese condottiero and admiral.
1626 Edward Alleyn an English actor who was a major figure of the Elizabethan theatre and founder of Dulwich College and Alleyn's School.
1648 Daišan an influential Manchu prince and statesman of the Qing Dynasty.
1686 Nicolas Steno a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became Catholic bishop in his later years. Steno was trained in the classical texts on science; however, by 1659 he seriously questioned accepted knowledge of the natural world. Importantly he questioned explanations for tear production, the idea that fossils grew in the ground and explanations of rock formation. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology
1694 Ismaël Bullialdus a famous astronomer and mathematician during the seventeenth century. He published several books, and was an active member of the Republic of Letters, a scholarly exchange of ideas during the 17th and 18th centuries. He is most well known for his work in astronomy, and his most famous work is his book titled Astronomia Philolaica
1700 Stephanus Van Cortlandt the first native-born mayor of New York City, a position which he held from 1677 to 1678 and from 1686 to 1688. He was the patroon of Van Cortlandt Manor and was on the governor's executive council from 1691 to 1700. He was the first resident of Sagtikos Manor in West Bay Shore on Long Island, which was built around 1697. His brother, Jacobus Van Cortlandt also served as mayor of New York City. His wife, Gertruj Van Schuyler, was the sister of Pieter Schuyler, a colonial governor of New York and mayor of Albany
1723 David-Augustin de Brueys a French theologian and dramatist. He was born in Aix-en-Provence. His family was Calvinist, and he studied theology. After writing a critique of Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet's work, he was in turn converted to Catholicism by Bossuet, and later became a priest
1730 Patrona Halil the instigator of a mob uprising in 1730 which replaced Sultan Ahmed III with Mahmud I and ended the Tulip period.
1748 Isaac Watts an English Christian hymnwriter, theologian and logician. A prolific and popular hymn writer, his work was part of evangelization. He was recognized as the "Father of English Hymnody", credited with some 750 hymns. Many of his hymns remain in use today and have been translated into numerous languages
1755 Johann Georg Pisendel a German Baroque musician, violinist and composer who, for many years, led the Court Orchestra in Dresden, then the finest instrumental ensemble in Europe.
1779 Dom Bédos de Celles a Benedictine monk best known for being a master pipe organ builder.
1785 Richard Glover (poet) an English poet and politician.
1786 Nathanael Gottfried Leske a German natural scientist and geologist.
1788 Manuel de Guirior a Spanish naval officer and colonial administrator. He was viceroy of New Granada from 1772 to 1776 and of Peru from July 17, 1776 to July 21, 1780
1803 Joseph Wilton an English sculptor. He was one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and the academy's third keeper. His works are particularly numerous memorialising the famous Britons in Westminster Abbey
1830 Pierre Rode a French violinist and composer.
1841 Francis Leggatt Chantrey an English sculptor. He became the leading portrait sculptor in the Regency era Britain, producing busts and statues of many notable figures of the time. He left the Chantrey Bequest or Chantrey Fund for the purchase of works of art for the nation, which was available from 1878 after the death of his widow
1855 Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Heyse a German philologist, son of Johann Christian August Heyse, father of the novelist Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, born at Oldenburg.
1864 David Roberts (painter) a Scottish painter. He is especially known for a prolific series of detailed lithograph prints of Egypt and the Near East that he produced from sketches he made during long tours of the region. These, and his large oil paintings of similar subjects, made him a prominent Orientalist painter. He was elected as a Royal Academician in 1841
1865 Heinrich Barth a German explorer of Africa and scholar.
1867 Karl Ferdinand Sohn a German painter of the Düsseldorf school of painting.
1868 Joseph Duke of Saxe-Altenburg a duke of Saxe-Altenburg.
1868 Franz Brendel a German music critic, journalist and musicologist born in Stolberg, the son of a successful mining engineer named Christian Friedrich Brendel.
1881 Theobald Boehm a German inventor and musician, who perfected the modern Western concert flute and its improved fingering system. He was a Bavarian court musician, a virtuoso flautist, and a celebrated composer for the flute
1884 Hermann Kolbe a seminal contributor in the birth of modern organic chemistry as Professor at Marburg and Leipzig. Kolbe coined the term synthesis, and contributed to the philosophical demise of vitalism through synthesis of the biologic natural product acetic acid from carbon disulfide, to structural theory via modifications to the idea of "radicals" and accurate prediction of the existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols, and to the emerging array of organic reactions through his Kolbe electrolysis of carboxylate salts, the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction in the preparation of aspirin, and the Kolbe nitrile synthesis. After studies with Wöhler and Bunsen, Kolbe was involved with the early internationalization of chemistry through overseas work in London , and rose through the ranks of his field to edit the Journal für Praktische Chemie, to be elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and to win the Royal Society of London's Davy Medal in the year of his death. Despite these accomplishments and his training a storied next generation of chemists , Kolbe is remembered for editing the Journal for more than a decade, where his rejection of Kekulé's structure of benzene, van't Hoff's theory on the origin of chirality, and von Baeyer's reforms of nomenclature were personally critical and linguistically violent. Kolbe died of a heart attack in Leipzig at age 68, six years after the death of his wife, Charlotte. He was survived by four children
1885 Alfonso XII of Spain King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup d'état restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic.
1885 Eustorgio Salgar a lawyer, Colombian general and political figure, who was president of the United States of Colombia from 1870 until 1872. Elected at age 39, he was the youngest President of Colombia
1885 Grigore Alexandrescu a nineteenth-century Romanian poet and translator noted for his fables with political undertones.
1885 Thomas A. Hendricks lawyer and an American politician from Indiana who served as the 16th governor of Indiana and the 21st Vice President of the United States.
1885 Francisco Serrano 1st Duke of la Torre a Spanish marshal and statesman. He was Prime Minister of Spain and regent in 1868-1869
1886 Richard Maack a 19th-century Russian naturalist, geographer, and anthropologist. He is most known for his exploration of the Russian Far East and Siberia, particularly the Ussuri and Amur River valleys. He wrote some of the first scientific descriptions of the natural history of remote Siberia and collected many biological specimens, many of which were original type specimens of previously unknown species
1887 Johann Jakob Bachofen a Swiss antiquarian, jurist and anthropologist, professor for Roman law at the University of Basel from 1841 to 1845.
1888 Josef Jireček a Czech scholar.
1893 Johann Bauschinger a mathematician, builder, and professor of Engineering Mechanics at Munich Polytechnic from 1868 until his death. The Bauschinger effect in materials science is named after him. He was also the father of astronomer Julius Bauschinger
1894 Victor Duruy a French historian and statesman.
1894 Solomon Caesar Malan a British divine and orientalist.
1895 Ludwig Ruetimeyer considered one of the fathers of zooarchaeology.