November 25 events in history

1034 Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots, dies. Donnchad, the son of his daughter Bethóc and Crínán of Dunkeld, inherits the throne
1120 The White Ship sinks in the English Channel, drowning William Adelin, son and heir of Henry I of England
1177 Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Châtillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard
1343 A tsunami, caused by an earthquake in the Tyrrhenian Sea, devastates Naples (Italy) and the Maritime Republic of Amalfi, among other places
1487 Elizabeth of York is crowned Queen of England
1491 The siege of Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, ends with the Treaty of Granada
1667 A deadly earthquake rocks Shemakha in the Caucasus, killing 80,000 people
1755 King Ferdinand VI of Spain grants royal protection to the Beaterio de la Compañia de Jesus, now known as the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary
1758 French and Indian War: British forces capture Fort Duquesne from French control. Later, Fort Pitt will be built nearby and grow into modern Pittsburgh
1759 An earthquake hits the Mediterranean destroying Beirut and Damascus and killing 30,000-40,000
1783 American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris
1795 Partitions of Poland: Stanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of independent Poland, is forced to abdicate and is exiled to Russia
1826 The Greek frigate Hellas arrives in Nafplion to become the first flagship of the Hellenic Navy
1833 A massive undersea earthquake, estimated magnitude between 8.7-9.2, rocks Sumatra, producing a massive tsunami all along the Indonesian coast
1839 A cyclone slams India with high winds and a 40-foot storm surge, destroying the port city of Coringa (which has never been completely rebuilt). The storm wave sweeps inland, taking with it 20,000 ships and thousands of people. An estimated 300,000 deaths result from the disaster
1863 American Civil War: Battle of Missionary Ridge: At Missionary Ridge in Tennessee, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg
1864 American Civil War: A group of Confederate operatives calling themselves the Confederate Army of Manhattan starts fires in more than 20 locations in an unsuccessful attempt to burn down New York City
1874 The United States Greenback Party is established as a political party consisting primarily of farmers affected by the Panic of 1873
1876 American Indian Wars: In retaliation for the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops sack Chief Dull Knife's sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River
1905 Prince Carl of Denmark arrives in Norway to become King Haakon VII of Norway
1915 Albert Einstein presents the field equations of general relativity to the Prussian Academy of Sciences
1917 World War I: German forces defeat Portuguese army of about 1200 at Negomano on the border of modern-day Mozambique and Tanzania
1918 Vojvodina, formerly Austro-Hungarian crown land, proclaims its secession from Austria–Hungary to join the Kingdom of Serbia
1926 The deadliest November tornado outbreak in U.S. history strikes on Thanksgiving Day. Twenty-seven twisters of great strength are reported in the Midwest, including the strongest November tornado, an estimated F4, that devastates Heber Springs, Arkansas. There are 51 deaths in Arkansas alone, 76 deaths and over 400 injuries in all
1936 In Berlin, Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, agreeing to consult on measures "to safeguard their common interests" in the case of an unprovoked attack by the Soviet Union against either nation. The pact is renewed on the same day five years later with additional signatories
1940 World War II: First flight of the de Havilland Mosquito and Martin B-26 Marauder
1941 HMS Barham is sunk by a German torpedo during World War II
1943 World War II: Statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina is re-established at the State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1947 Red Scare: The "Hollywood Ten" are blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios
1947 New Zealand ratifies the Statute of Westminster and thus becomes independent of legislative control by the United Kingdom
1950 The Great Appalachian Storm of November 1950, known at the time as the "Storm of the Century", strikes New England with hurricane force winds resulting in massive forest blow-downs and storm surge damage along the Northeast coast including New York City. This storm also brings blizzard conditions to the Appalachian Mountains and Ohio Valley, becoming one of the worst storms of all time. Three hundred fifty-three people die in the event
1952 Agatha Christie's murder-mystery play The Mousetrap opens at the Ambassadors Theatre in London. It will become the longest continuously-running play in history
1952 Korean War: After 42 days of fighting, the Battle of Triangle Hill ends as American and South Korean units abandon their attempt to capture the "Iron Triangle"
1958 French Sudan gains autonomy as a self-governing member of the French Community
1960 The Mirabal sisters of the Dominican Republic are assassinated
1970 In Japan, author Yukio Mishima and one compatriot commit ritualistic seppuku after an unsuccessful coup attempt
1973 George Papadopoulos, head of the military Regime of the Colonels in Greece, is ousted in a hardliners' coup led by Brigadier General Dimitrios Ioannidis
1975 Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands
1977 Former Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., is found guilty by the Philippine Military Commission No. 2 and is sentenced to death by firing squad
1981 Pope John Paul II appoints Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (the future Pope Benedict XVI) Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
1984 Thirty-six top musicians gather in a Notting Hill studio and record Band Aid's "Do They Know It's Christmas?" in order to raise money for famine relief in Ethiopia
1986 Iran–Contra affair: U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese announces that profits from covert weapons sales to Iran were illegally diverted to the anti-communist Contra rebels in Nicaragua
1986 The King Fahd Causeway is officially opened in the Persian Gulf
1987 Typhoon Nina pummels the Philippines with category 5 winds of 165 mph and a surge that destroys entire villages. At least 1,036 deaths are attributed to the storm
1992 The Federal Assembly of Czechoslovakia votes to split the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with effect from January 1, 1993
1996 An ice storm strikes the central U.S., killing 26 people. A powerful windstorm affects Florida and winds gust over 90 mph, toppling trees and flipping trailers
1999 The United Nations establishes the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women to commemorate the murder of three Mirabal sisters for resistance against the Rafael Trujillo dictatorship in the Dominican Republic
2000 The 2000 Baku earthquake, with a Richter magnitude of 7.0, leaves 26 people dead in Baku, Azerbaijan, and becomes the strongest earthquake in the region in 158 years
2008 Cyclone Nisha strikes northern Sri Lanka, killing 15 people and displacing 90,000 others while dealing the region the highest rainfall in nine decades
2009 Jeddah floods: Freak rains swamp the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during an ongoing Hajj pilgrimage. Three thousand cars are swept away and 122 people perish in the torrents, with 350 others missing