Born on November 27

395 Rufinus (consul) a 4th-century Eastern Roman Empire statesman of Gaulish extraction who served as Praetorian prefect of the East for the emperor Theodosius I, as well as his son Arcadius, under whom Rufinus was the actual power behind the throne.
639 Acarius bishop of Doornik and Noyon, which today are located on either side of the Franco-Belgian border.
862 Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid High King of Ireland. The Annals of Ulster use the Old Irish title rí hÉrenn uile, that is "king of all Ireland", when reporting his death, distinguishing Máel Sechnaill from the usual Kings of Tara who are only called High Kings of Ireland in late sources such as the Annals of the Four Masters or Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn
1127 Emperor Xiaozong of Song the eleventh emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the second emperor of the Southern Song. His personal name was Zhao Shen. He reigned from 1162 to 1189. His temple name means "Filial Ancestor"
1380 Ferdinand I of Aragon king of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica and king of Sicily, duke of Athens and Neopatria, and count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdanya. He was also regent of Castile
1422 Gaston IV Count of Foix a French nobleman from Bearn, who founded a brief-ruling dynastic house of the Kingdom of Navarre.
1576 Shimazu Tadatsune a tozama daimyo of Satsuma, the first to hold it as a formal fief under the Tokugawa shogunate, and the first Japanese to rule over the Ryūkyū Kingdom. As lord of Satsuma, he was among the most powerful lords in Japan at the time, and formally submitted to Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1602, to prove his loyalty, being rewarded as a result with the name Matsudaira Iehisa; Matsudaira being a branch family of the Tokugawa, and "Ie" of "Iehisa" being taken from "Ieyasu", this was a great honor. As of 1603, his holdings amounted to 605,000 koku
1582 Pierre Dupuy (scholar) a French scholar, the son of the humanist and bibliophile Claude Dupuy.
1630 Sigismund Francis Archduke of Austria the ruler of Further Austria including Tyrol from 1662 to 1665.
1635 Françoise d'Aubigné Marquise de Maintenon the second wife of King Louis XIV of France. She was known during her first marriage as Madame Scarron, and subsequently as Madame de Maintenon. Her marriage to the king was never officially announced or admitted
1640 Barbara Palmer 1st Duchess of Cleveland an English courtesan from the Villiers family and perhaps the most notorious of the many mistresses of King Charles II of England, by whom she had five children, all of whom were acknowledged and subsequently ennobled. Her influence was so great that she has been referred to as "The Uncrowned Queen." Her immediate contemporary was Madame de Montespan, mistress of King Louis XIV of France
1654 Friedrich von Canitz a German poet and diplomat. He was one of the few German poets of his era that Frederick the Great enjoyed
1658 Tsarevna Catherine Alekseyevna of Russia the fifth daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.
1658 Tsarevna Yevdokia Alekseyevna of Russia the eldest daughter of Tsar Alexis of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya, sister of Tsar Feodor III of Russia and Tsar Ivan V of Russia and half-sister of Tsar Peter the Great.
1666 Georg Philipp Rugendas a German battle and military genre painter and engraver.
1668 Henri François d'Aguesseau Chancellor of France three times between 1717 and 1750 and pronounced by Voltaire to be "the most learned magistrate France every possessed".
1669 Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1669–1719) a Polish-Lithuanian szlachcic.
1684 Tokugawa Yoshimune the eighth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. He was the son of Tokugawa Mitsusada, the grandson of Tokugawa Yorinobu, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu
1701 Anders Celsius a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He was professor of astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to 1744, but traveled from 1732 to 1735 visiting notable observatories in Germany, Italy and France. He founded the Uppsala Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in 1742 proposed the Celsius temperature scale which bears his name
1710 Robert Lowth a Bishop of the Church of England, Oxford Professor of Poetry and the author of one of the most influential textbooks of English grammar.
1731 Gaetano Pugnani born in Turin. He trained on the violin under Giovanni Battista Somis. In 1752, Pugnani became the first violinist of the Royal Chapel of Turin. Then he went on a large tour that granted him great fame for his extraordinary skill on the violin. In 1754, he was very well received at the Concert Spirituel in Paris, but in 1768 he had an even more successful musical encounter in London, directing the King's Theatre from 1767 to 1769
1734 Johann Euler a Swiss-Russian astronomer and mathematician. Also known as Johann Albert Euler or John-Albert Euler, he was the first child born to the great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler who had emigrated to Saint-Petersburg on 17 May 1727. His mother was Katharina Gsell whose maternal grandmother was the famous scientific illustrator Maria Sibylla Merian and whose father was the Swiss Baroque painter Georg Gsell who had emigrated to Russia in 1716. Katharina married Leonhard Euler on 7 January 1734 and Johann Albert would be the eldest of their 13 children
1746 Increase Sumner an American lawyer, jurist, and politician from Massachusetts. He was the fifth governor of Massachusetts, serving from 1797 to 1799. Trained as a lawyer, he served in the provisional government of Massachusetts during the American Revolutionary War, and was elected to the Confederation Congress in 1782. Appointed to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court the same year, he served there as an associate justice until 1797
1746 Robert R. Livingston (chancellor) an American lawyer, politician, diplomat from New York, and a Founding Father of the United States. He was known as "The Chancellor", after the office he held for 25 years
1754 Georg Forster a naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary. At an early age, he accompanied his father on several scientific expeditions, including James Cook's second voyage to the Pacific. His report from that journey, A Voyage Round the World, contributed significantly to the ethnology of the people of Polynesia and remains a respected work. As a result of the report Forster was admitted to the Royal Society at the early age of twenty-two and came to be considered one of the founders of modern scientific travel literature
1759 Franz Krommer a Czech composer of classical music, whose 71-year life span began half a year after the death of George Frideric Handel and ended nearly four years after that of Ludwig van Beethoven.
1765 Bernard Sarrette founded what would become the Paris Conservatoire.
1779 Aimé duc de Clermont-Tonnerre a French general and statesman.
1790 Alexandre Ferdinand Parseval-Deschenes a French admiral and senator.
1794 Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal a German botanist.
1798 Andries Pretorius a leader of the Boers who was instrumental in the creation of the South African Republic, as well as the earlier but short-lived Natalia Republic, in present-day South Africa. The large city of Pretoria in South Africa is named after him
1801 Alexander Egorovich Varlamov one of the founding fathers of the Russian art song. He was the author of probably the first method of singing by a Russian author, Shkulo pienia
1804 Julius Benedict a German-born composer and conductor, resident in England for most of his career.
1809 Fanny Kemble a notable British actress from a theatre family in the early and mid-nineteenth century. She was also a well-known and popular writer, whose published works included plays, poetry, eleven volumes of memoirs, travel writing and works about the theatre. In 1834 she married an American, Pierce Mease Butler, heir to cotton, tobacco and rice plantations on the Sea Islands of Georgia, and to the hundreds of slaves who worked them
1814 Charles-François-Frédéric marquis de Montholon-Sémonville a French senator, diplomat, and French ambassador to the United States, from 1864 to 1866.
1820 Thomas Baines an English artist and explorer of British colonial southern Africa and Australia.
1827 Maxime Lalanne a French artist known for his etchings and charcoal drawings.
1829 Henri Louis Frédéric de Saussure a Swiss mineralogist and entomologist specialising in studies of Hymenoptera and Orthoptera. He also was a prolific taxonomist
1831 Gustav Radde a German naturalist and explorer.
1833 Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George III and great-grandmother of Elizabeth She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage.
1834 Michael Bernays born in Hamburg. He studied first law and then literature at Bonn and Heidelberg
1839 Nikolay Kashkin a Russian music critic as well as a professor of piano and music theory at the Moscow Conservatory for 33 years.
1840 Aleksey Apukhtin a Russian poet, writer and critic.
1841 Paul Christoph Hennings a German mycologist and herbarium curator. He discovered the study of cryptogams and mushrooms as a volunteer at the botanical garden. Although circumstances initially prevented him to study in that area, he later returned to natural sciences and eventually rose to a position at the largest herbarium in Germany. Originally interested in all non-higher plants, he specialised into mushrooms and became particularly versed in tropical species sent from abroad
1842 Nikolay Mikhaylovsky a Russian literary critic, sociologist, writer on public affairs, and one of the theoreticians of the Narodniki movement.
1843 Elizabeth Stride believed to be the third victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer called Jack the Ripper, who killed and mutilated prostitutes in the Whitechapel area of London from late August to early November 1888.
1843 Cornelius Vanderbilt II an American socialite, heir, businessman, and a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family.
1848 Henry Augustus Rowland a U.S. physicist. Between 1899 and 1901 he served as the first president of the American Physical Society. He is remembered today particularly for the high quality of the diffraction gratings he made and for the work he did with them on the solar spectrum
1848 Maximilian von Prittwitz an Imperial German general. He fought in the Austro-Prussian War, the Franco-Prussian War, and briefly in the First World War
1849 Horace Lamb an English applied mathematician and author of several influential texts on classical physics, among them Hydrodynamics and Dynamical Theory of Sound. Both of these books are still in print