Born on October 1

208 Alexander Severus Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy
961 Artald of Reims twice Archbishop of Reims. He held the post first 931 to 940, when he was displaced by Hugh of Vermandois. He was restored, with the help of Louis IV of France, in 946
1207 Henry III of England King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assumed the throne when he was only nine in the middle of the First Barons' War. Cardinal Guala declared the war against the rebel barons to be a religious crusade and Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217. Henry promised to abide by the Great Charter of 1225, which limited royal power and protected the rights of the major barons. His early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh and then Peter des Roches, who reestablished royal authority after the war. In 1230 the King attempted to reconquer the provinces of France that had once belonged to his father, but the invasion was a debacle. A revolt led by William Marshal's son, Richard, broke out in 1232, ending in a peace settlement negotiated by the Church
1348 Isabella Countess of Vertus a French princess and member of the House of Valois, as well as the wife of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan, although she died before her husband's accession.
1478 Günther Zainer the first printer in Augsburg, where he worked from 1468 until his death; he produced about 80 books including two German editions of the Bible and the first printed calendar. He came to Augsburg from Strassburg and printed in 1472–76 three large works of moral instruction. He also printed the first large illustrated book, Jacobus de Voragine's Legenda aurea in 2 volumes with 131 woodcuts, 1471–76. Johann Zainer, the first printer in Ulm, was probably his brother
1480 Saint Cajetan an Italian Catholic priest and religious reformer, who helped found the Theatines. He is recognised as a saint in the Catholic Church, and his feast day is August 7
1507 Johannes Sturm a German educator, influential in the design of the Gymnasium system of secondary education.
1507 Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù in Rome. The three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio
1540 Johann Jakob Grynaeus a Swiss Protestant divine.
1542 Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira a Spanish navigator. Born in Congosto, in León, he was the nephew of Lope García de Castro, viceroy of Peru. He is best known for the two voyages of discovery he led into the Pacific in 1567 and 1595 in search of Terra Australis
1549 Anne of Saint Bartholomew O.C.D. was a Spanish Discalced Carmelite nun, and companion to Teresa of Avila. She led the establishment of monasteries of the new Order in France and the Lowlands. She has been beatified by the Catholic Church
1606 Julian Maunoir a French-born Jesuit priest known as the "Apostle of Brittany". He was beatified in 1951 by Pope Pius XII and is commemorated by the Roman Catholic Church on 29 January and 2 July
1620 Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem a highly esteemed and prolific Dutch Golden Age painter of pastoral landscapes, populated with mythological or biblical figures, but also of a number of allegories and genre pieces.
1641 Hans Adam von Schöning a Generalfeldmarschall in the service of Brandenburg-Prussia and the Electorate of Saxony.
1671 Luigi Guido Grandi Dom Guido Grandi, O.S.B. Cam., was an Italian monk, priest, philosopher, mathematician, and engineer
1685 Charles VI Holy Roman Emperor succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia , King of Hungary and Croatia , and King of Serbia , Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, born 1717, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, born 1718, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands
1691 Arthur Onslow an English politician. He set a record for length of service when repeatedly elected to serve as Speaker of the House of Commons, where he was known for his integrity
1712 William Shippen an American physician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a civic and educational leader who represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress
1715 Richard Jago an English poet. He was the third son of Richard Jago, Rector of Beaudesert, Warwickshire
1723 Georg Rudolf Boehmer a German botanist and physician born in Liegnitz.
1724 Giovanni Battista Cirri an Italian cellist and composer in the 18th century.
1729 Anton Cajetan Adlgasser a German organist and composer at Salzburg Cathedral and at court, and composed a good deal of liturgical music as well as oratorios and orchestral and keyboard works.
1730 Richard Stockton (Continental Congressman) an American lawyer, jurist, legislator, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence.
1732 Antoine Léonard Thomas a French poet and literary critic, best known in his time for his great eloquence. He was born in Clermont-Ferrand and died, aged 52, in Oullins
1746 Peter Muhlenberg an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, and political figure in the newly independent United States. A Lutheran minister, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania
1754 Paul I of Russia the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. He was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, and remained overshadowed by his mother for much of his life. Paul's reign lasted for only five years, ending with his assassination by conspirators. His most important achievement was the adoption of the laws of succession to the Russian throne that lasted until the end of the Romanov dynasty and the Russian Empire
1760 William Thomas Beckford an English novelist, a profligate and consummately knowledgeable art collector and patron of works of decorative art, a critic, travel writer and sometime politician, reputed at one stage in his life to be the richest commoner in England. His parents were William Beckford and Maria Hamilton, daughter of the Hon. George Hamilton. He was Member of Parliament for Wells from 1784 to 1790, for Hindon from 1790 to 1795 and 1806 to 1820. He is remembered as the author of the Gothic novel Vathek, the builder of the remarkable lost Fonthill Abbey and Lansdown Tower , Bath, and especially for his art collection
1770 Vincenzo Cuoco an Italian writer. He is mainly remembered for his Saggio Storico sulla Rivoluzione Napoletana del 1799
1770 Karl vom Stein zum Altenstein a Prussian politician and the first Prussian culture minister. His most lasting impact was the reform of the Prussian educational system
1771 Pierre Baillot a French violinist and composer born in Passy. He studied the violin under Giovanni Battista Viotti and taught at the Paris Conservatoire together with Pierre Rode and Rodolphe Kreutzer, who wrote the conservatoire's official violin method. He was sole author of the instructional L'art du violon. Baillot's teachings had a profound influence on technical and musical development in an age in which virtuosity was openly encouraged. He was leader of the Paris Opéra, gave solo recitals and was a notable performer of chamber music. He died in Paris in 1842
1780 Robert Smirke (architect) an English architect, one of the leaders of Greek Revival architecture, though he also used other architectural styles. As architect to the Board of Works he designed several major public buildings including the main block and facade of the British Museum, He was a pioneer of the use of concrete foundations
1780 Göran Wahlenberg a Swedish naturalist. He was born in Kroppa, Värmland County
1791 Sergey Aksakov a 19th-century Russian literary figure remembered for his semi-autobiographical tales of family life, as well as his books on hunting and fishing.
1793 Peter Kaiser a historian and statesman from Liechtenstein.
1794 Leopold IV Duke of Anhalt a German prince of the House of Ascania.
1800 Ludwig Freiherr von Holzgethan an Austrian statesman.
1800 Martín Perfecto de Cos a 19th-century Mexican general. He was married to Lucinda López de Santa Anna, sister of Antonio López de Santa Anna
1804 Eduard Sobolewski a Polish-American violinist, composer, and conductor.
1804 William Stokes (physician) an Irish physician, who was Regius Professor of Physic at the University of Dublin. He graduated from the University of Edinburgh Medical School with an MD in 1825 later returning the practice in Dublin at Meath Hospital. he went on to create two important works on cardiac and pulmonary diseases – A Treatise on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Chest and The Diseases of the Heart and Aorta – as well as one of the first treatises on the use of the stethoscope. He emphasised the importance of clinical examination in forming diagnoses, and of ward-based learning for students of medicine
1808 Mary Anna Custis Lee a third cousin and the wife of Robert Lee, the prominent career military officer who subsequently commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War. They married at her parents' home, Arlington House, in Virginia in 1831, and had seven children together; she survived him by three years
1814 Hervé Faye a French astronomer, born at Saint-Benoît-du-Sault and educated at the École Polytechnique, which he left in 1834, before completing his course, to accept a position in the Paris Observatory to which he had been appointed on the recommendation of Arago. It was during his time at the École Polytechnique that he developed his interest in astronomy
1818 John Mercer Johnson a politician in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada and a Father of Confederation. He represented Northumberland in the Canadian House of Commons from 1867 to 1868 as a Liberal member
1822 François Jules Edmond Got a French stage actor, comedian, and opera librettist.
1825 Raleigh E. Colston a French-born American professor, soldier, cartographer, and writer. He was a controversial brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Colston was among a handful of former Confederates who served in Egypt following the war
1826 Benjamin B. Hotchkiss one of the leading American ordnance engineers of his day.
1826 Karl von Piloty a German painter.
1832 Caroline Harrison a teacher of music, the wife of Benjamin Harrison and mother of two surviving children; after his election as President of the United States, she was First Lady of the United States from 1889 until her death.
1832 Henry Clay Work an American composer and songwriter.
1833 Wilhelm von Hahnke a Prussian Field Marshal.
1835 Ádám Politzer a Hungarian and Austrian physician and one of the pioneers and founders of otology.