Born on October 10

425 Archbishop Atticus of Constantinople the archbishop of Constantinople, succeeding Arsacius of Tarsus in March 406. He had been an opponent of John Chrysostom and helped Arsacius of Tarsus depose him, but later became a supporter of him after his death. He rebuilt the small church that was located on the site of the later Hagia Sophia, and was an opponent of the Pelagians, which helped increase his popularity among the citizens of Constantinople
1213 Frederick II Duke of Lorraine the duke of Lorraine from 1206 to his death, son of Frederick I and Ludmilla, daughter of Mieszko III the Old, of the Piast Dynasty.
1332 Charles II of Navarre King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387.
1344 Mary of Waltham the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
1349 Edward II Count of Bar Henry IV of Bar's eldest son and successor as count of Bar. He had no male issue and was succeeded as count by his younger brother Robert I of Bar
1486 Charles III Duke of Savoy Duke of Savoy from 1504 to 1553, although most of his lands were ruled by the French between 1536 and his death.
1528 Adam Lonicer a German botanist, noted for his 1557 revised version of Eucharius Rösslin’s herbal.
1560 Jacobus Arminius the Latinized name of the Dutch theologian Jakob Hermanszoon from the Protestant Reformation period, served from 1603 as professor in theology at the University of Leiden. He wrote many books and treatises on theology, and his views became the basis of Arminianism and the Dutch Remonstrant movement
1567 Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain a Duchess consort of Savoy by marriage to Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy: she also served as Regent of Savoy several times during the absence of her spouse. She was the youngest surviving daughter of Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois; she was also the sister of Isabella Clara Eugenia, Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands
1599 Étienne Moulinié a French Baroque composer. He was born in Languedoc, and when he was a child he sang at the Narbonne Cathedral. Through the influence of his brother Antoine , Moulinié gained an appointment at court, as the director of music for Gaston d'Orléans, the younger brother of the king. For this post he wrote sacred and secular music, for voice or voices and lute or continuo. He also wrote music to accompany the ballet or other dances. He taught Gaston's daughter, Mlle de Montpensier. Moulinié worked for Gaston until his death in 1660, at which point Moulinié was forced to find new employment. For this he returned to his birthplace of Languedoc
1619 Princess Elisabeth Sophie of Saxe-Altenburg a princess of Saxe-Altenburg and, by marriage, duchess of Saxe-Gotha.
1625 Erik Dahlbergh a Swedish engineer, soldier, and field marshal. He was born of peasant stock but he eventually rose to the level of nobility through his military competence. He was renown for fortification works and was called the "Vauban of Sweden"
1656 Nicolas de Largillière a painter born in Paris, France.
1669 Johann Nicolaus Bach a German composer of the Baroque period.
1680 John Campbell 2nd Duke of Argyll a Scottish nobleman and senior commander in the British Army. He served on the contintent in the Nine Years' War and fought at the Battle of Kaiserwerth during the War of the Spanish Succession. He went on to serve as a brigade commander during the later battles of the War of the Spanish Succession. Next he was given command of all British forces in Spain at the instigation of the Harley Ministry; after conducting a successful evacuation of the troops from Spain, he became Commander-in-Chief, Scotland. During the Jacobite Rebellion, he led the government army against the Jacobites led by the Earl of Mar at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. He went on to serve as Lord Steward and then Master-General of the Ordnance under the Walpole–Townshend Ministry
1684 Jean-Antoine Watteau a French painter whose brief career spurred the revival of interest in colour and movement, as seen in the tradition of Correggio and Rubens. He revitalized the waning Baroque style, shifting it to the less severe, more naturalistic, less formally classical Rococo
1700 Lambert-Sigisbert Adam born in Nancy, the eldest son of sculptor Jacob-Sigisbert Adam.
1722 Humphry Marshall an American botanist and plant dealer.
1731 Henry Cavendish a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. Cavendish is noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air". He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper "On Factitious Airs". Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name
1736 Michał Jerzy Poniatowski a Polish nobleman, abbot of Tyniec and Czerwińsk, Bishop of Płock and Coadjutor Bishop of Kraków from 1773, and Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland from 1784. He was made a knight of the Order of the White Eagle on November 25, 1764. Nine days later, he was made a prince by his brother, the last king of Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski
1738 Benjamin West an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence. He was the second president of the Royal Academy in London, serving from 1792 to 1805 and 1806 to 1820. He was offered a knighthood by the British Crown, but declined it, believing that he should instead be made a peer
1741 Charles II Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ruler of the state of Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1794 until his death. Originally ruling as duke, he was raised to the rank of grand duke in 1815. Prior to succeeding to the throne he served as Governor of Hanover from 1776 to 1786
1744 Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble, and Knight of the Order of the White Eagle.
1745 Margravine Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt a daughter of Margrave Frederick William of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Princess Sophia Dorothea of Prussia. By her marriage to Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, she became Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel
1749 Martin Vahl a Danish-Norwegian botanist and zoologist.
1757 Erik Acharius known as the "father of lichenology".
1757 Stanislas Marie Adelaide comte de Clermont-Tonnerre a French military officer, and a politician during the French Revolution.
1763 Xavier de Maistre known as a French writer. The younger brother of noted philosopher and counter-revolutionary Joseph de Maistre, Xavier was born to an aristocratic family at Chambéry in October 1763. He served when young in the army of Piedmont-Sardinia, and in 1790 wrote his fantasy, Voyage autour de ma chambre , when he was under arrest in Turin as the consequence of a duel
1780 John Abercrombie (physician) a Scottish physician and philosopher. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary says of him that after Dr James Gregory's death, he was "recognized as the first consulting physician in Scotland"
1785 Florestan I Prince of Monaco Prince of Monaco and Duke of Valentinois from 2 October 1841 until his death. He was born Tancrède Florestan Roger Louis Grimaldi the second son of Prince Honoré IV and Louise d'Aumont Mazarin, and succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother, Honoré V
1786 François-Édouard Picot a French painter during the July Monarchy, painting mythological, religious and historical subjects.
1794 William Whiting Boardman a politician and United States Representative from Connecticut.
1797 Thomas Drummond an army officer, civil engineer and senior public official. Drummond used the Drummond light which was employed in the trigonometrical survey of Great Britain and Ireland. He is sometimes mistakenly given credit for the invention of limelight, at the expense of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney. However, it was Drummond who realised their value in surveying
1800 Charles Tilstone Beke an English traveller, geographer and Biblical critic. Born in Stepney, London, the son of a merchant in the City of London, for a few years Beke engaged in mercantile pursuits. He later studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and for a time practised at the Bar, but finally devoted himself to the study of historical, geographical and ethnographical subjects
1807 Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine the first Canadian to become Prime Minister of the United Province of Canada and the first head of a responsible government in Canada. He was born in Boucherville, Lower Canada in 1807. A jurist and statesman, Lafontaine was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada in 1830. He was a supporter of Papineau and member of the Parti canadien. After the severe consequences of the Rebellions of 1837 against the British authorities, he advocated political reforms within the new Union regime of 1841
1810 Franz Hermann Troschel a German zoologist born in Spandau.
1812 János Garay a Hungarian poet and author, was born in Szekszárd, Tolna County. From 1823 to 1828 he studied at Pécs, and subsequently, in 1829, at the University of Pest. In 1834 he brought out an heroic poem, in hexameters, under the title Csatár. Garay was an energetic journalist, and in 1838 he moved to Bratislava, where he edited the political journal Hírnök. He returned to Pest in 1839, when he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 1842 he was admitted into the Kisfaludy Society, of which he became second secretary
1813 Giuseppe Verdi an Italian Romantic composer primarily known for his operas. He is considered, together with Richard Wagner, the preeminent opera composer of the nineteenth century
1817 Serafino Dubois an Italian chess player. He was known for his writings on the game and for his promotion of chess in Italy
1817 C. H. D. Buys Ballot a Dutch chemist and meteorologist after whom Buys Ballot's law and the Buys Ballot table are named.
1819 Charles Monck 4th Viscount Monck the last Governor-General of the Province of Canada and the first Governor General of Canada after Canadian Confederation. Prior to Confederation he was concurrently Lieutenant Governor of both Canada West and Canada East. He was the son of Charles Joseph Kelly Monck, the 3rd Viscount, and Bridget Willington
1821 Mikhail Avdeev a Russian novelist, playwright and publicist, best known for the Tamarin trilogy, published in 1849–1852 by Sovremennik.
1825 Paul Kruger State President of the South African Republic. He gained international renown as the face of Boer resistance against the British during the South African or Second Boer War
1828 Samuel J. Randall a Pennsylvania politician, attorney, soldier, and a prominent Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives during the late 19th century. He served as the 33rd Speaker of the House and was a contender for his party's nomination for the President of the United States in two campaigns
1830 Isabella II of Spain queen regnant of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognise a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son Alfonso XII became king in 1874
1834 Aleksis Kivi a Finnish author who wrote the first significant novel in the Finnish language, Seven Brothers. Although Kivi was among the very earliest authors of prose and lyrics in Finnish language, he is still considered one of the greatest of them all
1836 Edmund Rose a German surgeon who was a native of Berlin.
1837 Robert Gould Shaw an American military officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. As Colonel, he commanded the all-black 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, which entered the war in 1863. He was killed in the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, near Charleston, South Carolina
1837 Liu Yongfu a Chinese soldier of fortune and commander of the celebrated Black Flag Army. Liu won fame as a Chinese patriot fighting against the French in northern Vietnam in the 1870s and early 1880s. During the Sino-French War he established a close friendship with the Chinese statesman and general Tang Ching-sung, and in 1895 he helped Tang organise resistance to the Japanese invasion of Taiwan. He succeeded Tang as the second and last leader of the short-lived Republic of Formosa
1838 Theodor Zahn a German biblical scholar.