Died on October 10

644 Paulinus of York a Roman missionary and the first Bishop of York. A member of the Gregorian mission sent in 601 by Pope Gregory I to Christianize the Anglo-Saxons from their native Anglo-Saxon paganism, Paulinus arrived in England by 604 with the second missionary group. Little is known of Paulinus' activities in the following two decades
680 Husayn ibn Ali the son of Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib and Fatimah Zahra and the younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali. Husayn is an important figure in Islam, as he is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt and Ahl al-Kisa, as well as being the third Shia Imam
827 Pope Valentine Pope for two months in 827.
1144 Alfonso of Hauteville the prince of Capua from 1135 to his death. He was named after his maternal grandfather, Alfonso VI of Castile
1229 Henry de Beaumont 5th Earl of Warwick the son of Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick and Margaret, daughter of Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford and Maud of Essex. He was also known as Henry de Newburg
1359 Hugh IV of Cyprus King of Cyprus from 31 March 1324 to his abdication, on 24 November 1358 and, nominally, King of Jerusalem, as Hugh II, until his death. The son of Guy of Cyprus, Constable of Cyprus , and Eschiva of Ibelin, Hugh succeeded his father as Constable of Cyprus in 1318, and later succeeded to the throne of Cyprus on the death of his uncle Henry II, since Henry II had no son. He was a member of the House of Lusignan
1473 Giorgio da Sebenico a medieval sculptor and architect from Dalmatia, who worked mainly in Sebenico , at the time part of the Republic of Venice, and in the city of Ancona, then a maritime republic.
1503 Peter II Duke of Bourbon the son of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon, and Agnes of Burgundy, and a member of the House of Bourbon. He and his wife Anne of France ruled as regents during the minority of Charles VIII of France
1577 Maria of Portugal Duchess of Viseu a Portuguese infanta daughter of King Manuel I and his wife Eleanor of Austria.
1588 Nicolás Monardes a Spanish physician and botanist.
1617 Bernardino Baldi an Italian mathematician and writer.
1636 Pieter Brueghel the Younger a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Bruegel the Elder's work as well as his original compositions. Traditionally, he has been nicknamed "de helse Brueghel" or "Hell Brueghel" because it was believed he was the author of several paintings with fantastic depictions of fire and grotesque imagery. These paintings have now been attributed to his brother Jan Brueghel the Elder
1659 Abel Tasman a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company. He was the first known European explorer to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand, and to sight the Fiji islands. His navigator François Visscher and his merchant Isaack Gilsemans mapped substantial portions of Australia, New Zealand, and some Pacific Islands
1676 Sebastian Knüpfer a German composer. He was the cantor of the Thomanerchor in Leipzig from 1657 to 1676, and director of the city’s music
1691 Isaac de Benserade a French poet.
1707 Johann Patkul a Livonian nobleman, politician, and agitator of Baltic German extraction. Born as a subject to the Swedish Crown, his protests against the manner of Charles XI of Sweden's reduction in Livonia enraged the king to the point of having him arrested and sentenced to mutilation and death. Patkul fled from the Swedish empire to continental Europe, playing a key role in the secret diplomacy allying Peter the Great of Russia, Augustus the Strong of Saxony and Poland-Lithuania as well as Christian V and his successor Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway against Charles XII of Sweden, triggering the Great Northern War. During the first war years, Patkul retained a key role in the communication between the allies and other European courts, holding positions at king Augustus' court first in Augustus', then in tsar Peter's service. In late 1705 Patkul fell from Augustus' favor and was arrested and charged with high treason. Throughout the following year he was detained first in Sonnenstein, then in Königstein , before Charles XII forced Augustus to extradite him by the treaty of Altranstädt in late 1706. Patkul spent another year in Swedish detention before Charles XII had him broken on the wheel and decapitated
1708 David Gregory (mathematician) a Scottish mathematician and astronomer. He was professor of mathematics at the University of Edinburgh, Savilian Professor of Astronomy at the University of Oxford, and a commentator on Isaac Newton's Principia
1714 Pierre Le Pesant sieur de Boisguilbert a French law-maker and a Jansenist, one of the inventors of the notion of an economical market.
1720 Antoine Coysevox born at Lyon, and belonged to a family which had emigrated from Spain. The name should be pronounced quazevo
1723 William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper an English politician who became the first Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. Cowper was the son of Sir William Cowper, 2nd Baronet, of Ratling Court, Kent, a Whig member of parliament of some mark in the two last Stuart reigns. Educated at St Albans School, he was called to the bar in 1688
1725 Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil a French politician, who was Governor-General of New France from 1703 to 1725, throughout Queen Anne's War and Father Rale's War.
1726 Tommaso Redi (painter) an Italian painter, who was active during the late-Baroque in his native Florence.
1729 Thomas Fairchild (gardener) an English gardener.
1744 Johann Heinrich Schulze a German professor and polymath from Colbitz in the Duchy of Magdeburg.
1747 John Potter (bishop) Archbishop of Canterbury.
1759 Granville Elliott a British military officer. He served with distinction in several other European armies and subsequently in the British Army. He fought at the Battle of Minden where he was wounded, dying of his injuries several weeks later
1765 Lionel Sackville 1st Duke of Dorset an English political leader and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
1775 Louis Nicolas Victor de Félix d'Ollières a French soldier and statesman from a family originating in Provence. He was made a member of the Ordre du Saint-Esprit in 1764
1791 Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart a German poet, born at Obersontheim in Swabia.
1792 Constantine Phipps 2nd Baron Mulgrave an English explorer and officer in the Royal Navy. He served during the Seven Years' War and the American War of Independence, seeing action in a number of battles and engagements. Inheriting a title, he also went on to have a successful career in Parliament, and occupied a number of political offices during his later years
1795 Francesco Antonio Zaccaria an Italian theologian, historian, and prolific writer.
1796 Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel queen of Denmark between 1752 and 1766, second consort of king Frederick V of Denmark and Norway, mother of the prince-regent Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and herself de facto regent 1772–1784, King Christian VIII of Denmark descends from her.
1797 Agui a Manchu noble general for the Qing dynasty. As the only son of Akdun, he was a scion of a noble family who led a number of important Manchu military operations, including several of the "Ten Great Campaigns"
1800 Gabriel Prosser a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment. In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions
1806 Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia
1815 Friedrich Wilhelm von Leysser a German botanist who was a native of Magdeburg. He served as counsellor to the king of Prussia
1824 Johann von Thielmann a Saxon soldier who served with Saxony, Prussia and France during the Napoleonic Wars.
1825 Dmitry Bortniansky a Russian composer and conductor of Ukrainian origin.
1828 Stepan Shchukin a Russian portrait and watercolor painter. Some sources give his year of birth as 1762
1834 Thomas Say an American naturalist, entomologist, malacologist, herpetologist and carcinologist. A taxonomist, he is widely considered the father of descriptive entomology in the United States. The Entomological Society of America maintains several series of publications and awards named for him
1835 Kazimierz Brodziński an important Polish Romantic poet.
1836 Martha Jefferson Randolph the daughter of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, and his wife Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson. Born at Monticello, near Charlottesville, Virginia she was named for her mother and Martha Washington, wife of George Washington. Her nickname was Patsy
1837 Charles Fourier a French philosopher and an important early socialist thinker later associated with "utopian socialism". An influential thinker, some of Fourier's social and moral views, held to be radical in his lifetime, have become mainstream thinking in modern society. Fourier is, for instance, credited with having originated the word feminism in 1837
1856 Vicente López y Planes an Argentine writer and politician who acted as interim President of Argentina from July 7, 1827 to August 18, 1827. He also wrote the lyrics of the Argentine National Anthem adopted on May 11, 1813
1857 George Washington Parke Custis the step-grandson and adopted son of United States President George Washington, and father-in-law of Robert Lee. He spent his large inherited fortune building Arlington House on the Potomac opposite Washington D.C. After his death, the estate was left to the Lee family, but was confiscated after the outbreak of the American Civil War. Later, the confiscation was rescinded, and Congress bought the estate back from the family. The house is now the Robert Lee Memorial and the plantation became Arlington National Cemetery and Fort Myer. He also wrote historical plays about Virginia, a number of patriotic addresses, and a memoir of life in the Washington household
1857 Thomas Crawford (sculptor) best known for his numerous artistic contributions to the United States Capitol.
1864 Karl Wilhelm Isenberg spelt or known by names Carl Wilhelm Isenberg or Charles William Isenberg or W. Isenberg or Carl Isenberg or Charles Isenberg, was a German Church Missionary Society missionary and linguist to East Africa and Western India
1867 Friedrich Lübker a German educator and philologist.
1871 Berthold Carl Seemann a German botanist. He travelled widely and collected and described plants from the Pacific and South America
1872 William H. Seward United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and also served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the American Civil War, he was a dominant figure in the Republican Party in its formative years. Although regarded as the leading contender for the party's presidential nomination in 1860, he was defeated by Abraham Lincoln