Born on October 11

1196 Saint Meinhard a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia. His life was described in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. His body rests in the now-Lutheran Riga Cathedral
1552 Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich of Russia (1552–1553) the first Tsarevich or Tsesarevich - the heir apparent - of the Tsardom of Russia, as the eldest son of Ivan the Terrible, or Ivan IV of Russia and his first Tsaritsa, Anastasia Romanovna. He was the third child and first son of the couple and died in infancy, leaving his younger brother, Ivan Ivanovich, heir
1585 Johann Heermann a German poet and hymn-writer. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 26 October with Philipp Nicolai and Paul Gerhardt
1599 Abraham de Fabert a Marshal of France.
1611 Hugues de Lionne a French statesman.
1616 Andreas Gryphius a German lyric poet and dramatist.
1629 Armand de Bourbon Prince of Conti a French nobleman, the younger son of Henri, Prince of Condé and brother of le Grand Condé and Anne Geneviève, Duchess of Longueville. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a Prince du Sang
1658 Christian Heinrich Postel a German jurist, epic poet and opera librettist, who wrote 28 libretti for the Oper am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg, set by composers such as Johann Philipp Förtsch, Reinhard Keiser and Georg Philipp Telemann. His texts for a St John Passion were set by composers Christian Ritter, Johann Mattheson and Johann Sebastian Bach in his St John Passion
1661 Melchior de Polignac a French diplomat, Roman Catholic cardinal and neo-Latin poet.
1671 Frederick IV of Denmark the king of Denmark and Norway from 1699 until his death. Frederick was the son of King Christian V of Denmark-Norway and his consort Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
1672 Pylyp Orlyk a Zaporozhian Cossack starshyna, Hetman in exile, diplomat, secretary and close associate of Hetman Ivan Mazepa.
1675 Samuel Clarke an English philosopher and Anglican clergyman. He is considered the major British figure in philosophy between John Locke and George Berkeley
1676 Georg Wilhelm de Gennin a German-born Russian military officer and engineer who specialized in mining and metallurgy.
1679 Christian Vater a German organ and harpsichord builder.
1710 Christophe-Gabriel Allegrain a French sculptor who tempered a neoclassical style with Rococo charm and softness, under the influence of his much more famous brother-in-law, Jean-Baptiste Pigalle.
1732 Raphaël Bienvenu Sabatier a French anatomist and surgeon born in Paris.
1738 Arthur Phillip the first Governor of New South Wales and founder of the settlement which became Sydney.
1739 Grigory Potemkin a Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favorite of Catherine the Great. He died during negotiations over the Treaty of Jassy, which ended a war with the Ottoman Empire that he had overseen
1753 Frederick Hereditary Prince of Denmark heir presumptive to the thrones of Denmark and Norway. He was the surviving son of King Frederick V by his second wife, Juliana Maria of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1758 Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers a German physician and astronomer.
1769 Vladislav Ozerov the most popular Russian dramatist in the first decades of the 19th century.
1777 Casimir Pierre Périer a French statesman, President of the Council during the July Monarchy, when he headed the conservative Parti de la résistance.
1782 Steen Steensen Blicher an author and poet born in Vium near Viborg, Denmark.
1786 Stevenson Archer (1786–1848) a United States Representative from Maryland, representing the sixth district from 1811 to 1817, and the seventh district from 1819 to 1821. His son Stevenson Archer and father John Archer were also U.S. Congressmen from Maryland
1787 Ferdinand August Maria Franz von Ritgen a German obstetrician born in the Westphalian village of Wulfen. He is remembered for instruction in the field of midwifery
1788 Simon Sechter an Austrian music theorist, teacher, organist, conductor and composer. He may have been the most prolific composer who ever lived, outdoing even Georg Philipp Telemann in the quantity of his output
1788 Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld a German Romantic painter, engraver and lithographer.
1803 Barend Cornelis Koekkoek a Dutch landscape artist and father of Johannes Hermanus Barend Koekkoek.
1804 Napoléon Louis Bonaparte the middle son of Louis I of Holland and Hortense de Beauharnais. His father was the younger brother of Napoléon I and reigned as King of Holland from 1806 to 1810, while his mother was the daughter of Josephine de Beauharnais, Napoléon's first wife
1805 Gustav Struve a German politician, lawyer and publicist, and a revolutionary during the German revolution of 1848-1849 in Baden. He also spent over a decade in the United States and was active there as a reformer
1806 Alexander Karađorđević Prince of Serbia the prince of Serbia between 1842 and 1858. He was a member of the House of Karađorđević
1808 Hyacinthe Klosé a French clarinet player, professor at the Conservatoire de Paris, and composer.
1809 Orson Squire Fowler a phrenologist and lecturer. He also popularized the octagon house in the middle of the nineteenth century
1810 Bahman Mirza Qajar a Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty, son of Abbas Mirza and grandson of Fath Ali Shah. He was Vicergerent of Azerbaijan and Governor-General of Tabriz, and the ancestor of the Persidsky, Bahmanov and Kadjar families of Azerbaijan as well as of the Iranian families Bahmani-Qajar and Bahman. Thus, Bahman Mirza was Ali Akbar Bahman's grandfather
1810 Anton Zwengauer a German painter of the Biedermeier period.
1814 Jean-Baptiste Lamy a French Roman Catholic prelate who served as the first Archbishop of Santa Fe, New Mexico, in the United States. The American writer Willa Cather's novel, Death Comes for the Archbishop, is based on his life and career
1815 Pierre Napoléon Bonaparte born in Rome, Italy, the son of Prince Lucien Bonaparte and his second wife Alexandrine de Bleschamp.
1817 Princess Marie Amelie of Baden the youngest daughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and Stéphanie de Beauharnais, the adopted daughter of Napoleon I of France. In 1843, she married the Scottish nobleman William Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale. They became the Duke and Duchess of Hamilton upon the death of William's father in 1852. Their only daughter Mary married the future Albert I, Prince of Monaco and was the mother of Louis II
1821 George Williams (YMCA) the founder of the YMCA.
1822 Teofil Fabiny a Hungarian politician and jurist, who served as Minister of Justice between 1886 and 1889.
1823 Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar a British military officer of German parents. After a career in the Grenadier Guards, he became Major General commanding the Brigade of Guards and General Officer Commanding the Home District in 1870, General Officer Commanding Southern District in October 1878 and Commander-in-Chief, Ireland in October 1885. He was promoted to field marshal in 1897 despite his career including no great military achievements
1825 Conrad Ferdinand Meyer a Swiss poet and historical novelist, a master of realism chiefly remembered for stirring narrative ballads like "Die Füße im Feuer".
1835 Theodore Thomas (conductor) an American violinist and conductor of German birth. He is considered the first renowned American orchestral conductor and was the founder and first music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra
1839 Nicolae Teclu a Romanian chemist, who gave his name to the worldwide-used "Teclu burner". He studied engineering and architecture, and then chemistry, continuing his career by becoming professor for general and analytical chemistry in Vienna. He also contributed substantially to the worldwide development of chemistry
1840 Adolf Bernhard Meyer a German anthropologist, ornithologist, entomologist, and herpetologist.
1841 Friedrich Hegar a Swiss composer, conductor, violinist, and founding conductor of Tonhalle-Orchester Zürich from 1868 to 1906.
1844 Henry J. Heinz an American businessman of German descent who founded the J. Heinz Company. Heinz Field, which is the home of the Pittsburgh Steelers NFL team, is named in his honor
1844 Ernst Leopold Salkowski a German biochemist who was a native of Königsberg.
1846 Carlos Pellegrini Vice President of Argentina and became President of Argentina from 6 August 1890 to 12 October 1892, upon Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman resignation.
1849 William Knox D'Arcy one of the principal founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia.