Born on October 12

1006 Emperor Go-Ichijō the 68th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1161 Henry V Duke of Carinthia the margrave of Verona from 1144 until 1151 and the duke of Carinthia from 1144 to his death. According to the contemporary chronicler Otto of Freising, Henry was "a valiant man, experienced in the councils of war"
1350 Dmitry Donskoy Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy , or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry , son of Ivan II the Meek of Moscow , reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death. He was the first prince of Moscow to openly challenge Mongol authority in Russia. His nickname, Donskoy , alludes to his great victory against the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo which took place on the Don River. He is venerated as a Saint in the Orthodox Church with his feast day on 19 May
1490 Bernardo Pisano an Italian composer, priest, singer, and scholar of the Renaissance. He was one of the first madrigalists, and the first composer anywhere to have a printed collection of secular music devoted entirely to himself
1531 Jacques Duke of Nemours Savoy, 2nd Duke of Nemours became Duke of Nemours in 1533.
1533 Asakura Yoshikage a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period who ruled a part of Echizen Province in present-day Fukui Prefecture. Yoshikage's conflicts with Oda Nobunaga resulted in his death and the destruction of the Asakura clan and its castle, Ichijōdani Castle
1537 Edward VI of England King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first monarch raised as a Protestant. During Edward's reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority. The Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, , and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland
1555 Peregrine Bertie 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby the son of Catherine Willoughby, 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, and Richard Bertie. Bertie was Lady Willoughby de Eresby's second husband, the first being Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. Peregrine Bertie's half-brothers, Henry and Charles Brandon, died as teenagers four years before his birth. His sister Susan married the Earl of Kent and then the nephew of Bess of Hardwick. Owing to religious politics, the parents had to move outside England and the boy was born at Wesel on the River Rhine
1558 Maximilian III Archduke of Austria the Archduke of Further Austria from 1612 until his death.
1576 Thomas Dudley a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Dudley was the chief founder of Newtowne, later Cambridge, Massachusetts, and built the town's first home. He provided land and funds to establish the Roxbury Latin School, and signed Harvard College's new charter during his 1650 term as governor. Dudley was a devout Puritan who was opposed to religious views not conforming with his. In this he was more rigid than other early Massachusetts leaders like John Winthrop, but less confrontational than John Endecott
1580 Hortensio Félix Paravicino a Spanish preacher and poet from the noble house of Pallavicini.
1582 Francesco Piccolomini (Jesuit) Very Rev. Francesco Piccolomini, S.J. was an Italian Jesuit, elected the 8th Superior-General of the Society of Jesus
1602 William Chillingworth a controversial English churchman.
1606 Christoph Bernhard von Galen prince-bishop of Münster. He was born into a noble Westphalian family
1614 Henry More an English philosopher of the Cambridge Platonist school.
1664 Praskovia Saltykova the tsaritsa of Russia as the only wife of Ivan V of Russia. She was the mother of Empress Anna of Russia. She played an important part as the most senior female of the Russian court in 1698–1712
1671 Charles de la Boische Marquis de Beauharnois a French Naval officer who served as Governor of New France from 1726 to 1746.
1680 Arthur Collier an English Anglican priest and philosopher.
1686 Sylvius Leopold Weiss a German composer and lutenist.
1705 Emmanuel Héré de Corny the court architect to Stanisław Leszczyński, Duke of Lorraine and former King of Poland at his capital of Nancy.
1710 Jonathan Trumbull one of the few Americans who served as governor in both a pre-Revolutionary colony and a post-Revolutionary state. He was the only colonial governor at the start of the Revolution to take up the rebel cause
1713 Johann Ludwig Krebs a Baroque musician and composer primarily for the pipe organ.
1725 Étienne Louis Geoffroy a French entomologist and pharmacist. He was born in Paris and died in Soissons. He followed the binomial nomenclature of Carl von Linné and devoted himself mainly to beetles
1760 Charles Paul Landon a French painter and popular writer on art and artists.
1762 Ivan Muravyov-Apostol a Russian statesman and writer.
1762 Jan Willem Janssens a Dutch nobleman, soldier and statesman who served both as the governor of the Cape Colony and governor-general of the Dutch East Indies.
1771 Mikhail Miloradovich a Russian general of Serbian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars. He entered military service on the eve of the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790 and his career advanced rapidly during the reign of Paul He served under Alexander Suvorov during Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799
1773 Granville Leveson-Gower 1st Earl Granville a British Whig statesman and diplomat.
1775 Lyman Beecher a Presbyterian minister, American Temperance Society co-founder and leader, and the father of 13 children, many of whom became noted figures, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher and Thomas Beecher. He is credited as a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States
1775 Ludovico Micara an Italian Capuchin and Cardinal. He was born at Frascati. Ordained in 1798, he became Dean of the College of Cardinals in 1824
1785 Henry Thomas Alken an English painter and engraver chiefly known as a caricaturist and illustrator of sporting subjects and coaching scenes. His most prolific period of painting and drawing occurred between 1816 and 1831
1792 Christian Gmelin a German chemist.
1796 Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky a Russian imperial statesmаn of the 19th century, most known for his putting down Polish uprisings, and subsequent cultural and social depolonization of Northwestern Krai. He should not be confused with his grandson, Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov, who served as Russian Foreign Minister between 1897 and 1900
1798 Pedro I of Brazil the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned briefly over Portugal, where he also became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, and thus a member of the House of Braganza. When their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil
1799 Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville a French entomologist.
1800 Francesco Florimo an Italian librarian, musicologist, historian of music, and composer.
1800 Samuel L. Selden an American lawyer and politician from New York. He was Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals in 1862
1801 Friedrich Frey-Herosé a Swiss politician.
1801 Carl August von Steinheil a German physicist, inventor, engineer and astronomer.
1802 Hermann Anschütz a German painter and professor at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting
1808 Victor Prosper Considerant a French utopian Socialist and disciple of Fourier. Contrary to a common error, his name is not written Considérant as he explained:
1811 Thomas C. Jerdon a British physician, zoologist and botanist. He was a pioneering ornithologist who described numerous species of birds in India. Several species of plants and birds including the rare Jerdon's courser are named after him
1812 Ascanio Sobrero an Italian chemist, born in Casale Monferrato. He was studying under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin, who had worked with the explosive material guncotton
1814 Henri Tresca a French mechanical engineer, and a professor at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers in Paris.
1814 Ernest Gambart a Belgian-born English art publisher and dealer who dominated the London art world in the middle of the nineteenth century.
1815 William J. Hardee a career U.S. Army officer, serving during the Second Seminole War and fighting in the Mexican-American War. He served as a Confederate general in the west during the American Civil War, quarrelling sharply with Braxton Bragg and John Hood. He opposed Sherman in Georgia, escaping into Carolina, before surrendering with Joseph Johnston. Hardee's writings about military tactics were widely used on both sides in the conflict
1826 Jules Charles Victurnien de Noailles Jules-Charles-Victurnien de Noailles, 7th Duke of Noailles , son of Paul, 6th duc de Noailles, acceded to the title of duc de Noailles on his father's death in 1885. He was succeeded by his son, Adrien de Noailles
1827 George Lawson (botanist) considered the "father of Canadian botany".
1827 Josiah Parsons Cooke an American scientist who worked at Harvard University and was instrumental in the measurement of atomic weights, inspiring America's first Nobel laureate in chemistry, Theodore Richards, to pursue similar research. Cooke's 1854 paper on atomic weights has been said to foreshadow the periodic law developed later by Mendeleev and others. Historian Bernard Cohen described Cooke "as the first university chemist to do truly distinguished work in the field of chemistry" in the United States
1830 Gustav Mayr an Austrian entomologist and professor in Budapest and Vienna. He specialised in Hymenoptera, being particularly known for his studies of Formicidae