Died on October 12

633 Edwin of Northumbria the King of Deira and Bernicia – which later became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death. He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627; after he fell at the Battle of Hatfield Chase, he was venerated as a saint
638 Pope Honorius I reigned from 27 October 625 to his death in 638.
642 Pope John IV reigned from 24 December 640 to his death in 642. His election followed a four-month sede vacante
1095 Leopold II Margrave of Austria the Margrave of Austria from 1075 to his death in 1095. He was a member of the House of Babenberg
1126 Ermengarde Countess of Maine Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126. She was the daughter of Elias I, Count of Maine, and Mathilda of Château-du-Loire
1152 Adolf III of Berg count of Berg from 1093 until 1132, and count of Hövel from 1090 until 1106, and Vogt of Werden. He was the son of Adolf II of Berg-Hövel, count of Berg, and Adelheid von Laufen
1176 William d'Aubigny 1st Earl of Arundel an English nobleman. He was the son of William d'Aubigny "Pincerna" of Old Buckenham Castle in Norfolk, and Maud Bigod, daughter of Roger Bigod of Norfolk
1320 Michael IX Palaiologos or Palaeologus , , reigned as Byzantine co-emperor with full imperial style 1294/1295–1320. Michael IX was the eldest son of Andronikos II Palaiologos and Anna of Hungary , daughter of Stephen V of Hungary
1328 Clementia of Hungary queen of France and Navarre as the second wife of King Louix X.
1435 Agnes Bernauer the mistress and perhaps also the first wife of Albert, later Albert III, Duke of Bavaria. Because his father, Ernest, ruling Duke of Bavaria at the time, considered this liaison with a commoner unbefitting his son's social standing, he clashed with his son over the matter and finally arranged to have Agnes condemned for witchcraft and drowned in the Danube in 1435. Her life and death have been depicted in numerous literary works, the most well known being Friedrich Hebbel's tragedy of the same name and the folk musical Die Bernauerin by the composer Carl Orff
1491 Fritz Herlen a German artist of the early Swabian school, in the 15th century.
1492 Piero della Francesca a painter of the Early Renaissance. As testified by Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Artists, to contemporaries he was also known as a mathematician and geometer. Nowadays Piero della Francesca is chiefly appreciated for his art. His painting was characterized by its serene humanism, its use of geometric forms and perspective. His most famous work is the cycle of frescoes "The Legend of the True Cross" in the church of San Francesco in the Tuscan town of Arezzo
1504 John Corvinus King of Bosnia. He was the illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, and his mistress, Barbara Edelpöck
1565 Jean Ribault a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States. He was a major figure in the French attempts to colonize Florida. A Huguenot and officer under Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, Ribault led an expedition to the New World in 1562 that founded the outpost of Charlesfort on Parris Island in present-day South Carolina. Two years later, he took over command of the French colony of Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville, Florida. He and many of his followers were killed by Spanish soldiers near Augustine 1565
1576 Maximilian II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany on 24 November 1562. On 16 July 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
1590 Kanō Eitoku a Japanese painter who lived during the Azuchi–Momoyama period of Japanese history and one of the most prominent patriarchs of the Kanō school of Japanese painting.
1600 Luis de Molina a Spanish Jesuit priest and a staunch Scholastic defender of 'human liberty' in the Divine grace and human liberty controversy of the Renaissance.
1632 Kutsuki Mototsuna a samurai commander in Azuchi-Momoyama period and Edo period. His father was Kutsuki Harutsuna. The Kutsuki were a powerful clan at Kutsuki-tani , Takasima-gori, Ōmi Province
1646 François de Bassompierre a French courtier.
1654 Carel Fabritius Pietersz. Fabritius was a Dutch painter. He was a pupil of Rembrandt and worked in his studio in Amsterdam. Fabritius, who was a member of the Delft School, developed his own artistic style and experimented with perspective and lighting. Among his works are A View of Delft , The Goldfinch , and The Sentry
1678 Pieter Codde Jacobsz. Codde was a Dutch painter of genre works, guardroom scenes and portraits
1678 Edmund Berry Godfrey an English magistrate whose mysterious death caused anti-Catholic uproar in England. Contemporary documents also spell the name Edmundbury Godfrey
1679 William Gurnall an English author and clergyman born at King's Lynn, Norfolk.
1685 Christoph Ignaz Abele an Austrian jurist.
1692 Giovanni Battista Vitali an Italian composer and violone player.
1730 Frederick IV of Denmark the king of Denmark and Norway from 1699 until his death. Frederick was the son of King Christian V of Denmark-Norway and his consort Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
1737 François Catrou a French historian, translator, and Jesuit priest.
1746 Augustin Friedrich Walther a German anatomist, botanist and physician who was a native of Wittenberg. He was the son of theologian Michael Walther the Younger
1758 Richard Molesworth 3rd Viscount Molesworth an Anglo-Irish military officer, politician and nobleman. He served with his regiment at the Battle of Blenheim before being appointed aide-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough during the War of the Spanish Succession. During the Battle of Ramillies Molesworth offered Marlborough his own horse after Marlborough fell from the saddle. Molesworth then recovered his master's charger and slipped away: by these actions he saved his master's life. Molesworth went on Lieutenant of the Ordnance in Ireland and was wounded at the Battle of Preston during the Jacobite rising before becoming Master-General of the Ordnance in Ireland and then Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
1777 Alexander Sumarokov a Russian poet and playwright who single-handedly created classical theatre in Russia, thus assisting Mikhail Lomonosov to inaugurate the reign of classicism in Russian literature.
1801 Ivan Gannibal a Russian military leader and eminent Russian of African and Russian descent. He was the son of military commander and politician Abram Petrovich Gannibal, as well as the great-uncle of Russia's most famous poet, Alexander Pushkin
1812 Juan José Castelli an Argentine lawyer. He was one of the leaders of the May Revolution, which started the Argentine War of Independence. He led an ill-fated military campaign in Upper Peru
1837 Wilhelmine of Prussia Queen of the Netherlands the first wife of King William I of the Netherlands and so the first Queen of the Netherlands.
1837 Akiva Eger an outstanding Talmudic scholar, influential halakhic decisor and foremost leader of European Jewry during the early 19th century. He was also a mohel
1838 Jean-François Le Gonidec a Breton grammarian who codified the Breton language.
1845 Elizabeth Fry an English prison reformer, social reformer and, as a Quaker, a Christian philanthropist. She has sometimes been referred to as the "angel of prisons"
1850 Pedro de Sousa Holstein 1st Duke of Palmela one of the most important Portuguese diplomats and statesmen in the first half of the 19th century. He also served as the country's first official Prime Minister, the office in essence having already existed
1858 Hiroshige a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition.
1859 Robert Stephenson an early railway engineer. The only son of George Stephenson, the "Father of Railways", he built on the achievements of his father. Robert has been called the greatest engineer of the 19th century
1860 Sir Harry Smith 1st Baronet a notable English soldier and military commander in the British Army of the early 19th century. A veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, he is also particularly remembered for his role in the Battle of Aliwal in 1846, and as the husband of Lady Smith
1863 Andrei Mureșanu a Romanian poet and revolutionary of Transylvania.
1864 Roger B. Taney the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864. He was the eleventh United States Attorney General. He is most remembered for delivering the majority opinion in Dred Scott Sandford , that ruled, among other things, that African-Americans, having been considered inferior at the time the Constitution was drafted, were not part of the original community of citizens and, whether free or slave, could not be considered citizens of the United States
1866 Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal a German botanist.
1867 Théodore Rousseau Étienne Pierre Théodore Rousseau , French painter of the Barbizon school.
1869 Pyotr Anjou an Arctic explorer and an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy.
1870 Robert E. Lee an American soldier best known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War from 1862 until his surrender in 1865. The son of Revolutionary War officer Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee III and a top graduate of the United States Military Academy, Robert Lee was an exceptional officer and combat engineer in the United States Army for 32 years. During this time, he served throughout the United States, distinguished himself during the Mexican–American War, served as Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, and married Mary Custis
1871 Prince Karl Johann of Liechtenstein the third son of Johann I Joseph, Prince of Liechtenstein and wife Landgravine Josepha of Fürstenberg-Weitra, nephew of Aloys I, brother of Aloys II and uncle of Johann II and Franz I.
1875 Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux a French sculptor and painter during the Second Empire under Napoleon III.
1887 Dinah Craik an English novelist and poet.
1892 Xavier Marmier a French author born in Pontarlier, in Doubs. He had a passion for travelling, and this he combined throughout his life with the production of literature. After journeying in Switzerland, Belgium and the Netherlands, he was attached in 1835 to the Arctic expedition of the Recherche; and after a couple of years at Rennes as professor of foreign literature, he visited Russia, Syria, Algeria, North America and South America, and numerous volumes from his pen were the result. In 1870 he was elected to the Academy , and he was for many years prominently identified with the Sainte-Geneviève library. He did much to encourage the study of Scandinavian literature in France, publishing translations of Holberg, Oehlenschlager and others. He died in Paris in 1892