Born on October 13

467 Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei an emperor of the Northern Wei from September 20, 471 to April 26, 499.
1162 Eleanor of England Queen of Castile Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. She was the sixth child and second daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and received her first name as a namesake of her mother
1370 Alianore Holland Countess of March the eldest daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and the wife of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir presumptive to her uncle, King Richard Through her daughter, Anne Mortimer, she was the great-grandmother of the Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III. She was Governess to Queen consort Isabella of Valois
1381 Thomas FitzAlan 12th Earl of Arundel an English nobleman, one of the principals of the deposition of Richard II, and a major figure during the reign of Henry IV.
1453 Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou. He was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne ever to die in battle
1474 Mariotto Albertinelli a High Renaissance Italian painter of the Florentine school, closely involved with Fra Bartolomeo and influenced by Raphael.
1499 Claude of France queen consort of France and duchess regnant of Brittany. She was the eldest daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany, as well as the first spouse of Francis I of France
1566 Richard Boyle 1st Earl of Cork Lord Treasurer of the Kingdom of Ireland.
1613 Karol Ferdynand Vasa Prince-Bishop of Breslau/Wrocław from 1625, bishop of Płock from 1640 and Duke of Oppeln Opole from 1648 to 1655.
1648 Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans born a Princess of France and was the Duchess of Savoy as the first wife of Charles Emmanuel She was a first cousin of Louis XIV as well of her husband. She was the shortest Savoyard consort dying at the age of fifteen, childless
1676 Michael II Apafi the son of the Hungarian Michael I Apafi and Anna Bornemissza. Following his father, he was Prince of Transylvania from 10 June 1690 to 1699
1679 Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst was, by birth, a Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst and, by marriage, a Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. She was the maternal grandmother of George III of the United Kingdom
1680 Catherine Opalińska Queen consort of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth twice and a Duchess consort of Lorraine through her marriage with Stanislaus I of Poland.
1685 Henri François Le Dran a French surgeon.
1696 John Hervey 2nd Baron Hervey the eldest son of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, by his second wife, Elizabeth. He was known as Lord Hervey from 1723, upon the death of his elder half-brother, Carr, the only son of his father's first wife, Isabella. But Lord Hervey never became Earl of Bristol, as he predeceased his father
1698 Giacomo Ceruti an Italian late Baroque painter, active in Northern Italy in Milan, Brescia, and Venice. He acquired the nickname Pitocchetto for his many paintings of peasants dressed in rags
1710 Alban Butler an English Roman Catholic priest and hagiographer.
1713 Allan Ramsay (artist) a prominent Scottish portrait-painter.
1747 Ange-François Fariau a French poet and translator.
1748 Franz von Werneck Freiherr von Werneck, born 13 October 1748 – died 17 January 1806, enlisted in the army of Habsburg Austria and fought in the Austro-Turkish War, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars. He enjoyed a distinguished career until 1797, when he lost a battle and was dismissed as punishment. He was only reinstated in 1805. In that year he surrendered his command and was later brought up on charges. He died while awaiting a court-martial
1749 John Sims (taxonomist) an English physician and botanist.
1754 Johann von Hiller an Austrian general during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He held an important command during the 1809 campaign against France, playing a prominent role at the Battle of Aspern-Essling
1756 James Gambier 1st Baron Gambier an admiral of the Royal Navy, who served as Governor of Newfoundland, and as a Lord of the Admiralty. He gained public distinction for his part in the Glorious First of June in 1794. He later survived an accusation of cowardice for his alleged inaction at the Battle of the Basque Roads
1766 Louis Marie de Lescure a French soldier and opponent of the French Revolution, the cousin of Henri de la Rochejaquelein.
1766 Giuseppe Longhi an Italian printmaker and writer.
1768 Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin a rear admiral of the French navy and later a Baron. He commanded numerous naval expeditions and battles with the British Navy as well as exploratory voyages in the Indian Ocean and the South Seas
1776 Peter Barlow (mathematician) an English mathematician and physicist.
1785 Jean Schneitzhoeffer a French composer.
1785 Princess Maria Anna of Hesse-Homburg a German noblewoman. She acted as the first lady of Prussia from 1810–40
1788 Isaac Baer Levinsohn a notable Russian-Hebrew scholar, satirist, writer and Haskalah leader. He was called "the Russian Mendelssohn". In his Bet Yehudah , he formulated a philosophy and described Jewish contributions to civilization in an effort to promote Judeo-Christian understanding
1792 Moritz Hauptmann a German music theorist, teacher and composer.
1794 Anselm Hüttenbrenner an Austrian composer. He was on friendly terms with both Ludwig van Beethoven—he was one of only two people present at his death—and Franz Schubert, his recollections of whom constitute an interesting but probably unreliable document in Schubertian biographical studies
1798 Herman Wilhelm Bissen a Danish sculptor.
1801 Emil Rödiger a German orientalist.
1803 Rafał Hadziewicz a Polish historical painter.
1805 Matthias Ward a lawyer and United States Senator from Texas.
1807 Hans Conon von der Gabelentz a German linguistic researcher and authority on the Manchu language. He was prime minister of the Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg from 1848 to 1849
1814 Jules Quicherat a French historian and archaeologist.
1820 John William Dawson a Canadian geologist and university administrator.
1821 Rudolf Virchow a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health. He is known as "the father of modern pathology" because his work helped to discredit humourism, bringing more science to medicine. He is also considered one of the founders of social medicine and veterinary pathology
1823 Immanuel Faisst a German composer and co-founder of the Stuttgart Music School, whose director he was, until his death. His compositions include works for organ, and some exercises on double fugue for piano, lieders, choruses, motets, cantatas, etc. Finally, along with Sigmund Lebert and Hans von Bülow, he published in 1881 the famous Cotta edition of the Beethoven Sonatas
1824 Carl Gustaf Thomson a Swedish entomologist.
1825 Charles Frederick Worth widely considered the Father of Haute couture.
1835 Alphonse Milne-Edwards a French mammalologist, ornithologist and carcinologist. He was English in origin, the son of Henri Milne-Edwards and grandson of Bryan Edwards, a Jamaican planter who settled at Bruges
1835 Duchess Agnes of Württemberg a German aristocrat and writer under the pseudonym of Angela Hohenstein.
1847 Sir Arthur Dyke Acland 13th Baronet a Liberal politician and political author. He is best remembered for his involvement with educational issues and served as Vice President of the Council of Education under William Ewart Gladstone and the Earl of Rosebery between 1892 and 1895
1848 Salome Dadiani a Georgian princess, the only sister of Niko Dadiani, the last Prince of Megrelia. She accompanied her mother, Princess Ekaterine, in her visit to Paris in 1868 and married Prince Achille Murat , a brother of Joachim, 4th Prince Murat , on 13 May 1868. Their descendants, Prince and Princess Murat, now reside in Tbilisi after residing in Zugdidi, Georgia
1851 Charles Sprague Pearce an American artist.
1853 Lillie Langtry celebrated as a young woman of beauty and charm, who later established a reputation as an actress and producer. In May 1877, Lady Sebright invited her to "an evening at home", attended by some of the famous artists of the day. Her looks—together with her ability to enchant those in her company—attracted interest, commentary, and invitations from artists and society hostesses
1856 Ludwig von Herterich a German painter and art teacher. He is best known as a painter of portraits and history paintings and is a representative of the Munich School