Died on October 13

54 Claudius Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37
982 Emperor Jingzong of Liao an emperor of the Liao Dynasty and reigned from March 13, 969 to October 13, 982.
1119 Alan IV Duke of Brittany Duke of Brittany from 1084 until his abdication in 1112. He was also Count of Nantes and Count of Rennes. His parents were Hawise, Duchess of Brittany and Hoel He is also known as Alan Fergant. Through his father, he was of the Breton House of Cornouaille dynasty. He was the last Duke of Brittany to speak the Breton language
1131 Philip of France (1116–1131) the King of France from 1129, co-ruling with his father, Louis His mother was Louis VI's second wife, Adelaide of Maurienne.
1240 Razia Sultana born in *Budaun and was the Sultan of Delhi in India from 1236 to May 1240. Like some other Muslim princesses of the time, she was trained to lead armies and administer kingdoms if necessary. Razia Sultana was the only woman ruler of both the Sultanate and the Mughal period, although other women ruled from behind the scenes. Razia refused to be addressed as Sultana because it meant "wife or mistress of a sultan". She would answer only to the title "Sultan." In many people's opinions Razia had all the qualities of a great monarch
1282 Nichiren a Buddhist monk who lived during the Kamakura period in Japan. Nichiren taught devotion to the Lotus Sutra — which contained Gautama Buddha's teachings towards the end of his life — as the exclusive means to attain enlightenment. Nichiren believed that this sutra contained the essence of all of Gautama Buddha's teachings relating to the laws of cause and effect, karma and to lead all people without distinction to enlightenment. This devotion to the sutra entails the chanting of Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō as the essential practice of the teaching
1382 Peter II of Cyprus king of Cyprus from 17 January 1369 until his death.
1415 Thomas FitzAlan 12th Earl of Arundel an English nobleman, one of the principals of the deposition of Richard II, and a major figure during the reign of Henry IV.
1435 Hermann II Count of Celje a Count of Celje and Ban of Slavonia. Hermann was the son of Hermann I, Count of Celje, and his wife Katherine of Bosnia
1528 Urs Graf a Swiss Renaissance goldsmith, painter and printmaker , as well as a mercenary soldier. He only produced two etchings, one of which dates from 1513 – the earliest known etching for which a date has been established. However, his woodcuts are considered of greater significance, particularly as he is attributed with the invention of the white-line woodcut technique, where white lines create the image on a black background. He also produced a few engravings, including copies of works by Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. He produced innovative drawings intended as finished works of art rather than just studies
1562 Claudin de Sermisy a French composer of the Renaissance. Along with Clément Janequin he was one of the most renowned composers of French chansons in the early 16th century; in addition he was a significant composer of sacred music. His music was both influential on, and influenced by, contemporary Italian styles
1605 Theodore Beza a French Protestant Christian theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. A member of the monarchomaque movement who opposed absolute monarchy, he was a disciple of John Calvin and lived most of his life in Switzerland
1673 Christoffer Gabel a Danish statesman.
1687 Geminiano Montanari an Italian astronomer, lens-maker, and proponent of the experimental approach to science.
1694 Samuel von Pufendorf a German jurist, political philosopher, economist, statesman, and historian. His name was just Samuel Pufendorf until he was ennobled in 1684; he was made a Freiherr a few months before his death at age 62 in 1694. Among his achievements are his commentaries and revisions of the natural law theories of Thomas Hobbes and Hugo Grotius
1706 Iyasu I nəgusä nägäst , 19 July 1682 – 13 October 1706 of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was the son of Yohannes I and Empress Sabla Wangel
1715 Nicolas Malebranche Cong. Orat. , was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher. In his works, he sought to synthesize the thought of Augustine and Descartes, in order to demonstrate the active role of God in every aspect of the world. Malebranche is best known for his doctrines of Vision in God and Occasionalism
1723 Praskovia Saltykova the tsaritsa of Russia as the only wife of Ivan V of Russia. She was the mother of Empress Anna of Russia. She played an important part as the most senior female of the Russian court in 1698–1712
1756 John Henley a preacher known for showmanship and eccentricity.
1788 Robert Nugent 1st Earl Nugent an Irish politician and poet. He was tersely described by Richard Glover as a jovial and voluptuous Irishman who had left popery for the Protestant religion, money and widows
1795 William Prescott an American colonel in the Revolutionary War who commanded the rebel forces in the Battle of Bunker Hill. Prescott is known for his order to his soldiers, "Do not fire until you see the whites of their eyes", such that the rebel troops may shoot at the enemy at shorter ranges, and therefore more accurately and lethally, and so conserve their limited stocks of ammunition. It is debated whether Prescott or someone earlier coined this memorable saying
1801 Richard Pulteney an English physician and botanist. He was a promoter of Linnaean taxonomy, and authored the first English language biography of Carl Linnaeus, entitled A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus. He was educated at Loughborough Grammar School, and a school house was named after him
1812 Isaac Brock a British Army officer and administrator from Guernsey. Brock was assigned to Lower Canada in 1802. Despite facing desertions and near-mutinies, he commanded his regiment in Upper Canada successfully for many years. He was promoted to major general, and became responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, Brock began to ready the army and militia for what was to come. When the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit defeated American invasion efforts
1815 Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808 and then King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. He received his titles in part by being the brother-in-law of Napoleon Bonaparte, through marriage to Napoleon's youngest sister, Caroline Bonaparte. He was noted as a daring and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser and was known as "the Dandy King"
1819 Georg Magnus Sprengtporten a Swedish, Finnish and Russian politician, younger brother of Jacob Magnus Sprengtporten.
1822 Antonio Canova an Italian sculptor from the Republic of Venice who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh. The epitome of the neoclassical style, his work marked a return to classical refinement after the theatrical excesses of Baroque sculpture. Among Canova's English pupils were sculptors Sir Richard Westmacott and John Gibson
1825 Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria from 1799 to 1805, king of Bavaria from 1806 to 1825. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach
1828 Vincenzo Monti an Italian poet, playwright, translator, and scholar.
1840 Wada Nei a Japanese mathematician in the Edo period. His birth name was Kōyama Naoaki; but he changed his name to Wada Nei, by which he became more widely known
1841 Patrick Campbell (Royal Navy officer) a senior British Royal Navy officer of the early nineteenth century who was distinguished by his service in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. During his service in a number of ships in the Mediterranean and English Channel, Campbell saw several small ship actions and was successful in every one, even surviving a double shipwreck in 1805. Following the war, Campbell retired for ten years before returning to service, later commanding at the Cape of Good Hope
1847 Lewis Nockalls Cottingham a British architect who pioneered the study of Medieval Gothic architecture. He was a restorer and conservator of existing buildings. He set up a Museum of Medieval Art in Waterloo Road, London with a collection of artefacts from demolished buildings and plaster casts of the medieval sculpture
1852 John Lloyd Stephens an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. Stephens was a pivotal figure in the rediscovery of Maya civilization throughout Middle America and in the planning of the Panama railroad
1863 Philippe Antoine d'Ornano a French soldier and political figure who rose to the rank of Marshal of France. He was made Count d'Ornano of the French Empire in 1808. He was born a son of Lodovico Antonio Ornano and Isabella Maria Buonaparte, making him a second cousin of Napoleon Bonaparte
1866 William Hopkins an English mathematician and geologist. He is famous as a private tutor of aspiring undergraduate Cambridge mathematicians, earning him the sobriquet the senior-wrangler maker
1869 Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve a literary critic of French literature.
1871 Moïse Polydore Millaud a journalist, banker and entrepreneur who founded Le Petit Journal, at one time the leading newspaper in France.
1871 Jakub Kryštof Rad a Swiss-born Czech entrepreneur who invented the sugar cubes in 1843 as a director of a sugar factory in Dačice in Moravia.
1873 Emil von Sydow a German geographer and cartographer born in Freiberg, Saxony.
1879 Henry Charles Carey a leading 19th-century economist of the American School of capitalism, and chief economic adviser to U.S. President Abraham Lincoln
1882 Arthur de Gobineau a French aristocrat, novelist and man of letters who became famous for developing the theory of the Aryan master race in his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races. Gobineau is credited as being the father of modern racial demography. Since the late 20th century, his works are considered early examples of scientific racism
1890 Samuel Freeman Miller an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court who served from 1862 to 1890. He was a physician and lawyer
1890 Pyotr Chikhachyov a Russian naturalist and geologist who was admitted into the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1876 as an honorary member. He authored geographical and geological descriptions of the Altai, Xinjiang , and Asia Minor. One of the Altai mountain ranges is named after him
1892 Felix von Thümen a German botanist and mycologist.
1893 John Atkinson Grimshaw a Victorian-era artist, a "remarkable and imaginative painter" known for his city night-scenes and landscapes.
1895 Émile Louis Ragonot a French entomologist. In 1885 he became president of the Société entomologique de France
1896 Alexander Theodorowicz Batalin a Russian botanist. He was the Chief Botanist and Director of the Imperial Botanical Garden in Petersburg
1899 Aristide Cavaillé-Coll a French organ builder. He has the reputation of being the most distinguished organ builder of the 19th century. He pioneered innovations in the art and science of organ building that permeated throughout the profession and influenced the course of organ building through the early twentieth century. The organ reform movement sought to return organ building to a more Baroque style, but in the last few decades of the twentieth century Cavaillé-Coll's designs came back into fashion. After Cavaillé-Coll's death, Charles Mutin maintained the business into the 20th century. Cavaillé-Coll was the author of many scientific journal articles and books on the organ in which he published the results of his researches and experiments. He was the inventor of several organ sounds/ranks/stops such as the flûte harmonique
1900 Otto Staudinger a German entomologist and a natural history dealer considered one of the largest in the world specialising in the collection and sale of insects to museums, scientific institutions, and individuals.
1900 Josef Mik a Czech entomologist mainly interested in Diptera. He described many new species and made contributions to knowledge of the Diptera of Central Europe.Mik was the first dipterist to clarify the chaetotaxy of the legs. " On the legs I distinguish a front - and a hind-side ; an upper- and an under-side. When we imagine the leg stretched out horizontally and perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the body, the front-side is that which is turned towards the head, and the hind-sidethat turned towards the end of the body ; the upper- and under-side, in such a case, are self-understood."
1900 Louis Adolphe Cochery a French politician and journalist.