October 13 events in history

54 Roman Emperor Claudius is poisoned to death under mysterious circumstances. His 17-year-old stepson Nero succeeds him to the Roman throne
409 Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania
1307 Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of Phillip the Fair, to be later tortured into a "confession" of heresy
1332 Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, reigning for only 53 days
1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain
1644 A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danish fleet at Fehmarn and captures about 1,000 prisoners
1710 Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces
1773 The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier
1775 The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy)
1792 In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid
1812 War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights – As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock
1843 In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B'nai B'rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world)
1845 A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution that, if accepted by the U.S. Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state
1881 First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends
1884 Greenwich, in London, England, is established as Universal Time meridian of longitude
1885 The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) is founded in Atlanta, United States
1892 Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13–14
1911 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, becomes the first Governor-General of Canada of royal descent
1914 In Major League Baseball's World Series, the Boston Braves defeat the Philadelphia Athletics, 4 games to 0, at Fenway Park in Boston, completing the first World Series sweep in history
1915 The Battle of the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos in northern France, World War I
1917 The "Miracle of the Sun" is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal
1918 Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I
1921 The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states
1923 Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey
1943 World War II: The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany
1944 World War II: Riga, the capital of Latvia is occupied by the Red Army
1946 France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic
1958 Paddington Bear, a classic character from English children's literature, makes his debut
1962 The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Cat 3 hurricane. Winds measured above 150 mph at several locations; 46 people died
1967 The first game in the history of the American Basketball Association is played as the Anaheim Amigos lose to the Oakland Oaks 134-129 in Oakland, California
1970 Fiji joins the United Nations
1972 An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 crashes outside Moscow killing 174
1972 Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashes in the Andes mountains, near the border between Argentina and Chile. By December 23, 1972, only 16 out of 45 people lived long enough to be rescued
1976 A Bolivian Boeing 707 cargo jet crashes in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, killing 100 (97, mostly children, killed on the ground)
1976 The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle is obtained by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, who was then working at the C.D.C
1977 Four Palestinians hijack Lufthansa Flight 181 to Somalia and demand release of 11 members of the Red Army Faction
1983 Ameritech Mobile Communications (now AT&T Inc.) launched the first US cellular network in Chicago
1990 End of the Lebanese Civil War. Syrian forces launch an attack on the free areas of Lebanon removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace
1992 An Antonov An-124 operated by Antonov Airlines registered CCCP-82002, crashes near Kiev, Ukraine killing 8
2010 The 2010 Copiapó mining accident in Copiapó, Chile comes to an end as all 33 miners arrive at the surface after surviving a record 69 days underground awaiting rescue
2013 A stampede breaks out on a bridge near the Ratangarh Mata Temple in Datia district, Madhya Pradesh, India during the Hindu festival Navratri, killing 115 people and injuring more than 110