Born on October 14

530 Antipope Dioscorus a deacon of the Alexandrian and the Roman church from 506. In a disputed election following the death of Pope Felix IV, the majority of electors picked him to be Pope, in spite of Pope Felix's wishes that Boniface succeed him. However, Dioscurus died less than a month after the election, allowing Boniface to be consecrated Pope and Dioscurus branded an Antipope
1152 Ralph I Count of Vermandois Count of Vermandois. He was son of Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, and Adelaide, Countess of Vermandois and paternal grandson of Henry I of France and while his mother had been heiress to Herbert IV of Vermandois
1257 Przemysł II the Duke of Poznań during 1257-1279, of Greater Poland during 1279-1296, of Kraków during 1290-1291 and Gdańsk Pomerania during 1294-1296, and then King of Poland from 1295 until his death. After a long period of Polish High Dukes, and two nominal kings, he was the first to obtain the hereditary title of King, and for Poland the rank of Kingdom
1404 Marie of Anjou Queen of France as the wife of King Charles VII from 1422 to 1461. Marie was the eldest daughter of Louis II of Anjou, titular King of Naples, titular King of Sicily, and Yolande of Aragon, titular Queen of Aragon
1425 Alesso Baldovinetti an Italian early Renaissance painter.
1465 Konrad Peutinger a German humanist, diplomat, politician, and economist. A senior official in the municipal government of the Imperial City of Augsburg, he served as a counselor to Emperor Maximilian I and his successor Charles Also known as a passionate antiquarian, he collected, with the help of his wife Margareta Welser , one of the largest private libraries north of the Alps
1493 Shimazu Tadayoshi a daimyo of Satsuma Province during Japan's Sengoku period.
1533 Anna of Mecklenburg a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Gotthard Kettler, on 11 March 1566 in Königsberg. She was the daughter of Albrecht VII, Duke of Mecklenburg and Anna of Brandenburg. Anna is the first woman in Livonia, whose life story is entirely historically confirmed
1542 Akbar Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the third and one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. In order to preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strived to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status
1563 Jodocus Hondius a Flemish / Dutch engraver, and cartographer. He is best known for his early maps of the New World and Europe, for re-establishing the reputation of the work of Gerard Mercator, and for his portraits of Francis Drake. He helped establish Amsterdam as the center of cartography in Europe in the 17th century
1593 Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen an English painter of portraits of Dutch or Flemish parentage. He was active in England, at least from 1618 to 1643. He moved to Middelburg in the Netherlands in 1643. Between 1646 and 1652 he lived in Amsterdam, before settling in Utrecht, where he was buried
1598 Nicolas de Neufville de Villeroy a French nobleman and marshal of France. He was marquis then 1st duke of Villeroy and peer of France, marquis d'Alincourt and lord of Magny, and acted as governor of the young Louis XIV. His son François succeeded him as duke. He was the lover of Catherine-Charlotte de Gramont
1606 Joan Maetsuycker the Governor of Zeylan during the Dutch period in Ceylon and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1653 to 1678. He was appointed as Governor of Zeylan in 24 March 1646 and was Governor until 26 February 1650. He was succeeded by Jacob van Kittensteyn
1630 Sophia of Hanover the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698. She became heiress presumptive to crowns of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Settlement 1701. After the Act of Union, 1707 unified the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, she became heiress to the throne of Kingdom of Great Britain
1633 James II of England King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland
1634 Alfonso IV d'Este Duke of Modena Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1658 until his death. He was the father of Mary of Modena, consort of James II of England
1638 Bernhard II Duke of Saxe-Jena duke of Saxe-Jena.
1639 Simon van der Stel the last Commander and first Governor of the Cape Colony, the Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.
1641 Joachim Tielke a German maker of musical instruments. He was born in Königsberg, Prussia, and died in Hamburg
1643 Bahadur Shah I the 8th emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled India from 1707 to 1712. His original name was Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam later titled as Shah Alam by his father. He took the throne name Bahadur Shah in 1707. His name Bahādur means "brave" & "hero" in Turko-Mongol languages. Reigning just five years, he was an old man of 63 when he came to power. He made settlements with the Marathas, pacified the Rajputs, and briefly became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab. He travelled throughout his reign and only came to rest in Lahore during the last few months of his life
1644 William Penn an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed
1668 Caspar Commelijn a Dutch botanist.
1675 Charles Whitworth 1st Baron Whitworth a British diplomat.
1687 Robert Simson a Scottish mathematician and professor of mathematics at the University of Glasgow. The pedal line of a triangle is sometimes called the "Simson line" after him
1712 George Grenville a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham. He emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham
1726 Charles Middleton 1st Baron Barham a British naval officer and politician.
1730 Jean-Joseph Rodolphe an Alsatian horn player, violinist and composer.
1733 François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix Count of Clerfayt a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years' War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey. During the French Revolutionary Wars he saw extensive fighting and rose to the rank of Field Marshal
1749 Erik Pauelsen a Danish painter. He is most notable for his landscapes and was also a popular portraitist. However, he did not experience the same level of success as Jens Juel and Nicolai Abildgaard, his contemporaries, and in 1790 he committed suicide
1750 John Fraser (botanist) a Scottish botanist who collected plant specimens around the world, from North America and the West Indies to Russia and points between, with his primary career activity from 1780 to 1810. Fraser was a commissioned plant collector for Catherine, Czar of Russia in 1795, Paul I of Russia in 1798, and for the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna in 1806; he issued nursery catalogues 1790 and 1796, and had an important herbarium that was eventually sold to the Linnean Society
1757 Charles Abbot 1st Baron Colchester a British barrister and statesman. He served as Speaker of the House of Commons between 1802 and 1817
1761 Friedrich Münter a German-Danish scholar, professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen, orientalist, church historian, archaeologist, Danish bishop of Zealand, and freemason. He was a brother of Sophie Christiane Friederike Brun
1762 Fabian Steinheil a Russian military officer, and the Governor-General of Finland between 1810 and 1824.
1767 Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure a Swiss chemist and student of plant physiology who made seminal advances in phytochemistry.
1768 Benjamin Marshall an English sporting and animal painter. He was a follower of George Stubbs and studied under Lemuel Abbott for a short period of time
1769 Antoine Marie Chamans comte de Lavalette a French politician and general.
1784 Ferdinand VII of Spain twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his supporters as "the Desired" and to his detractors as the "Felon King". After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. He reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. He suppressed the liberal press 1814-33 and jailed many of its editors and writers. Spain plunged into civil war on his death. His reputation among historians is very low. Historian Stanley Payne says:
1786 Julius Jacob von Haynau an Austrian general who was prominent in suppressing insurrectionary movements in Italy and Hungary in 1848 and later. While a hugely effective military leader, he also gained renown as an aggressive and ruthless commander. His soldiers called him the "Habsburg Tiger"; those opponents who suffered from his brutality called him the "Hyena of Brescia" and the "Hangman of Arad."
1788 Edward Sabine an Irish astronomer, geophysicist ,ornithologist,explorer, soldier and the 30th President of the Royal Society.
1790 Thursday October Christian I the first son of Fletcher Christian and his Tahitian wife Mauatua. He was conceived on Tahiti, and was the first child born on the Pitcairn Islands after the mutineers took refuge on the island. Born on a Thursday in October, he was given his unusual name because Fletcher Christian wanted his son to have "no name that will remind me of England."
1791 Friedrich Parrot a German naturalist and traveller, who lived and worked in what was then the Governorate of Livonia, a part of the Russian Empire.
1797 Ida Laura Pfeiffer an Austrian traveler and travel book author. She was one of the first female explorers, whose popular books were translated into seven languages. She was a member of geographical societies of both Berlin and Paris, but not of Royal Geographical Society in London due to her sex
1798 Félix Duban a French architect, the contemporary of Jacques Ignace Hittorff and Henri Labrouste.
1801 Armand Trousseau a French internist. His contributions to medicine include Trousseau sign of malignancy, Trousseau sign of latent tetany, Trousseau-Lallemand bodies , and the truism, "use new drugs quickly, while they still work."
1801 Joseph Plateau a Belgian physicist. He was the first person to demonstrate the illusion of a moving image. To do this he used counter rotating disks with repeating drawn images in small increments of motion on one and regularly spaced slits in the other. He called this device of 1832 the phenakistoscope
1804 Carl Timoleon von Neff an artist of Baltic German descent, from present-day Estonia.
1804 Dorothea de Ficquelmont a Russian writer and salonist. A granddaughter of the Russian war hero General Prince Kutuzov , she was a Russian aristocrat of German Baltic origin, and later a member of the Austrian nobility as the wife of Count Karl Ludwig von Ficquelmont
1806 Preston King (politician) a United States Representative and Senator from New York.
1812 Eduard Schleich the Elder a German painter. He is generally referred to as "The Elder" to distinguish him from his son Eduard , who was also a painter
1812 Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer a German American philosopher and publicist, from 1838 to 1846 professor of philosophy in the University of Marburg.