October 14 events in history

222 Pope Callixtus I is killed by a mob in Rome's Trastevere after a 5-year reign in which he had stabilized the Saturday fast three times per year, with no food, oil, or wine to be consumed on those days. Callixtus is succeeded by cardinal Urban I
1066 Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings: In England on Senlac Hill, seven miles from Hastings, the Norman forces of William the Conqueror defeat the English army and kill King Harold II of England
1322 Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland's independence
1465 Wallachian voivode Radu cel Frumos, younger brother of Vlad Ţepeş, issues a writ from his residence in Bucharest
1582 Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain
1586 Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Elizabeth I of England
1656 Massachusetts enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). The marriage of church-and-state in Puritanism makes them regard the Quakers as spiritually apostate and politically subversive
1758 Seven Years' War: Austria defeats Prussia at the Battle of Hochkirch
1773 Just before the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, several of the British East India Company's tea ships are set ablaze at the old seaport of Annapolis, Maryland
1773 The first recorded Ministry of Education, the Commission of National Education, is formed in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1805 Battle of Elchingen, France defeats Austria
1808 The Republic of Ragusa is annexed by France
1812 Work on London's Regent's Canal starts
1840 The Maronite leader Bashir II surrenders to the British Army and then is sent into exile on the islands of Malta
1843 The British arrest the Irish nationalist Daniel O'Connell for conspiracy to commit crimes
1863 American Civil War: Battle of Bristoe Station: Confederate troops under the command of General Robert E. Lee fail to drive the American Union Army completely out of Virginia
1882 University of the Punjab is founded in a part of India that later became West Pakistan
1884 The American inventor, George Eastman, receives a U.S. Government patent on his new paper-strip photographic film
1888 Louis Le Prince films first motion picture: Roundhay Garden Scene
1898 The steamer ship SS Mohegan sinks after impacting the Manacles near Cornwall, United Kingdom, killing 106
1908 The Chicago Cubs defeat the Detroit Tigers, 2–0, clinching the World Series. It would be their last one to date
1910 The English aviator Claude Grahame-White lands his Farman Aircraft biplane on Executive Avenue near the White House in Washington, D.C
1912 While campaigning in Milwaukee, the former President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, is shot and mildly wounded by John Schrank, a mentally-disturbed saloon keeper. With the fresh wound in his chest, and the bullet still within it, Mr. Roosevelt still carries out his scheduled public speech
1913 Senghenydd Colliery Disaster, the United Kingdom's worst coal mining accident, occurs, and it claims the lives of 439 miners
1915 World War I: The Kingdom of Bulgaria joins the Central Powers
1920 Part of Petsamo Province is ceded by the Soviet Union to Finland
1925 An Anti-French uprising in French-occupied Damascus, Syria. (All French inhabitants flee the city.)
1926 The children's book Winnie-the-Pooh, by A. A. Milne, is first published
1933 Nazi Germany withdraws from the League of Nations
1938 The first flight of the Curtiss Aircraft Company's P-40 Warhawk fighter plane
1939 The German submarine U-47 sinks the British battleship HMS Royal Oak within her harbour at Scapa Flow, Scotland
1940 Balham underground station disaster in London, England, occurs during the Nazi Luftwaffe air raids on Great Britain
1943 World War II: The American Eighth Air Force loses 60 B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers in aerial combat during the second mass-daylight air raid on the Schweinfurt ball bearing factories in western Nazi Germany
1943 Prisoners at the Nazi German Sobibór extermination camp in Poland revolt against the Germans, killing eleven SS guards, and wounding many more. About 300 of the Sobibor Camp's 600 prisoners escape, and about 50 of these survive the end of the war
1943 José P. Laurel takes the oath of office as President of the Philippines (Second Philippine Republic)
1944 World War II: Athens, Greece, is liberated by British Army troops entering the city as the Wehrmacht pulls out. This clears the way for the Greek government-in-exile to return to its historic capital city, with George Papandreou, Sr., as the head of government
1944 Linked to a plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is forced to commit suicide
1947 Captain Chuck Yeager of the United States Air Force flies a Bell X-1 rocket-powered experimental aircraft, the Glamorous Glennis, faster than the speed of sound over the high desert of Southern California and becomes the first pilot and the first airplane to do so in level flight
1949 Eleven leaders of the American Communist Party are convicted, after a nine-month trial in a Federal District Court, of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. Federal Government
1949 Chinese Civil War: Chinese Communist forces occupy the city of Guangzhou (Canton), in Guangdong, China
1952 Korean War: United Nations and South Korean forces launch Operation Showdown against Chinese strongholds at the Iron Triangle. The resulting Battle of Triangle Hill is the biggest and bloodiest battle of 1952
1956 Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the Indian Untouchable caste leader, converts to Buddhism along with 385,000 of his followers (see Neo-Buddhism)
1957 Queen Elizabeth II becomes the first Canadian Monarch to open up an annual session of the Canadian Parliament, presenting her Speech from the throne in Ottawa, Canada
1958 The American Atomic Energy Commission, with supporting military units, carries out an underground nuclear weapon test at the Nevada Test Site, just north of Las Vegas
1958 The District of Columbia's Bar Association votes to accept African-Americans as member attorneys
1962 The Cuban missile crisis begins: A U.S. Air Force U-2 reconnaissance plane and its pilot fly over the island of Cuba and take photographs of Soviet missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads being installed and erected in Cuba
1964 Martin Luther King, Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence
1964 Leonid Brezhnev becomes the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and thereby, along with his allies, such as Alexei Kosygin, the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), ousting the former monolithic leader Nikita Khrushchev, and sending him into retirement as a nonperson in the USSR
1966 The city of Montreal begins the operation of its underground Montreal Metro rapid-transit system
1967 The Vietnam War: The folk singer Joan Baez is arrested concerning a physical blockade of the U.S. Army's induction center in Oakland, California