Born on October 15

70 Virgil an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin literature, the Eclogues , the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him
975 Oberto I an Italian count palatine and margrave and the oldest known member of the Obertenghi family. He was, by heredity, Count of Milan from 951. Otbert's father was Margrave Adalbert, about whom nothing is known other than his name and title
1218 Hulagu Khan a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan
1265 Temür Khan Emperor Chengzong of Yuan considered as the sixth Great Khan of the Mongols in Mongolia. He was an able ruler of the Yuan, and his reign established the patterns of power for the next few decades. His name means "blessed iron Khan" in the Mongolian language
1470 Konrad Mutian a German humanist. He was born in Homburg of well-to-do parents named Muth, and was subsequently known as Konrad Mutianus Rufus from his red hair
1527 Maria Manuela Princess of Portugal the eldest daughter and second child of King John III of Portugal and his wife Catherine of Austria. She was Princess of Asturias as the first wife of the future Philip II of Spain, and Princess of Portugal as heir presumptive to the Portuguese throne between 1527 and 1535
1564 Henry Julius Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1589 until his death. In 1576 he had become the first rector of the Protestant University of Helmstedt
1608 Evangelista Torricelli also known for his advances in optics.
1686 Allan Ramsay (poet) a Scottish poet , playwright, publisher, librarian and wig-maker.
1692 Alessandro Albani a leading collector of antiquities in Rome and a commissioner of works of art. He supported the art historian, Johann Joachim Winckelmann and commissioned paintings from Anton Raphael Mengs. As a Roman Catholic cardinal he furthered the interests of the governments of Austria, Savoy and Britain against those of France and Spain
1694 Archibald Douglas 1st Duke of Douglas a Scottish nobleman.
1701 Louis Charles Count of Eu a grandson of Louis XIV of France and his Maîtresse-en-titre Françoise-Athénaïs de Montespan. He was a member of the legitimised house of Bourbon du Maine. He was the last surviving member of the house
1701 Marie-Marguerite d'Youville a French Canadian widow who founded the religious order the Order of Sisters of Charity of Montreal, commonly known as the Grey Nuns of Montreal. She was canonized by Pope John-Paul II of the Roman Catholic Church in 1990
1703 Benigna Gottlieb von Trotha gt Treyden a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Ernst Johann von Biron, in 25 February 1723
1711 Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine born a Princess of Lorraine and was the last queen consort of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia. The sister of Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine, she died as a result of giving birth to Benedetto of Savoy
1722 George VI of Imereti a Georgian nobleman and King of Imereti as George VI from 1702 to 1707. He was a member of the prominent Abashidze family
1743 Yakov Bulgakov a Russian diplomat best remembered as Catherine II's emissary in Constantinople in the 1780s.
1762 Samuel Adams Holyoke an American composer and teacher of vocal and instrumental music, was the son of Rev. Elizur Holyoke and Hannah Peabody. He was born October 15, 1762 in Boxford, Massachusetts, and died February 7, 1820 in Concord, New Hampshire. He was a Congregationalist and a Mason, and never married
1763 Lord Edward FitzGerald an Irish aristocrat and revolutionary who died of wounds received while resisting arrest on a charge of treason.
1763 Johann Georg Tralles a German mathematician and physicist.
1763 Tani Bunchō a Japanese literati painter and poet. He was the son of the poet Tani Rokkoku. As his family were retainers of the Tayasu Family of descendents of the eighth Tokugawa shogun, Bunchō inherited samurai status and received a stipend to meet the responsibilities this entailed. In his youth he began studying the painting techniques of the Kanō school under Katō Bunrei. After Bunrei's death, Bunchō worked with masters of other schools, such as the literati painter Kitayama Kangen , and developed a wide stylistic range that included many Chinese, Japanese and European idioms. He rose to particular prominence as the retainer of Matsudaira Sadanobu , genetic son of the Tayasu who was adopted into the Matsudaira family before becoming chief senior councilor of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1787. Bunchō is best known for his idealized landscapes in the literati style. Unlike most bunjinga painters of his time, however, Bunchō was an extremely eclectic artist, painting idealized Chinese landscapes, actual Japanese sites, and poetically-inspired traditional scenery. He also painted portraits of his contemporaries, as well as imagined images of such Chinese literati heroes as Su Shi and Tao Yuanming. Since travel outside Japan was forbidden under the Tokugawa shogunate, Bunchō was unable to study in China; he spent many years traveling around Japan, studying Chinese, Japanese, and Western art. Watanabe Kazan, Sakai Hōitsu and Takaku Aigai were among his disciples
1775 Bernhard Crusell a Swedish-Finnish clarinetist, composer and translator, "the most significant and internationally best-known Finnish-born classical composer and indeed, — the outstanding Finnish composer before Sibelius".
1779 Johan Olof Wallin a Swedish minister, orator, poet and later Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden. He is most remembered today for his hymns
1784 Thomas Robert Bugeaud a Marshal of France and Governor-General of Algeria.
1785 José Miguel Carrera a Chilean general, member of the prominent Carrera family, and considered one of the founders of independent Chile. Carrera was the most important leader of the Chilean War of Independence during the period of the Patria Vieja. After the Spanish Reconquista , he continued campaigning from exile. His opposition to the leaders of independent Argentina and Chile San Martin and O'Higgins respectively made him to live in exile in Montevideo. From Montevido Carrera traveled to Argentina where he joined the struggle against the unitarians. Carreras small army was eventually left isolated in the Province of Buenos Aires from the other federalist forces. In this difficult situation Carrera decided to cross to native-controlled lands all the way to Chile to once for all overthrow Chilean Supreme Director O'Higgins. His passage to Chile, which was his ultimate goal, was opposed by Argentine politicias and he engaged together with indigenous tribes, among the Ranquels, in a campaign against the southern provinces of Argentina. After the downfall of Carreras ally, the Republic of Entre Ríos, and several victories against the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. Carrera's men were finally defeated by numerically superior forces near Mendoza. Carrera was then betrayed by one of his Argentine helpers, leading to his capture and execution in that city. José Miguel Carrera was of Basque descent
1786 Hermann Ernst Freund a German-born Danish sculptor. He is remembered in particular for his figures from Nordic mythology and for the Ragnarok Frieze
1795 Prospero Caterini an Italian cardinal.
1795 Frederick William IV of Prussia the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. Also referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 he rejected the title of German Emperor offered to him by the Frankfurt parliament, considering that it was not in the parliament's gift. In 1857, he suffered a stroke, and was left incapacitated, until his death
1797 Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Heyse a German philologist, son of Johann Christian August Heyse, father of the novelist Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse, born at Oldenburg.
1799 François-Auguste Biard a French genre painter.
1802 Louis-Eugène Cavaignac a French general, the second son of Jean-Baptiste Cavaignac and brother of Éléonore Louis Godefroi Cavaignac.
1805 Eusebio Guilarte Vera a Bolivian politician who served briefly as President of Bolivia from 1847-1848. A career military officer , Guilarte had combatted under Santa Cruz at Zepita, and also in the battles of the Confederation. He had been José Ballivián's deputy aide at the Battle of Ingavi, for which he was rewarded as Ambassador to Brazil. Later, the President recalled Guilarte and appointed him a member of the powerful Council of State. Unable to sustain himself in power in light of the vast conspiracies of Manuel Belzu, Ballivián chose to leave the country and in late 1847 turned over power to General Guilarte as head of the Council of State. The fact is that by then the die was cast, as Belzu and his supporters were closing in on the capital. Guilarte's investiture simply provided cover for the President to get away while he could. Guilarte attempted to reach an understanding with the rebels, but was overthrown by Belzu in less than 2 weeks. Allowed to live under house arrest in internal exile at the Pacific port of Cobija, Litoral, Guilarte caught an illness and died less than 2 years later, in 1849
1805 Wilhelm von Kaulbach a German painter, noted mainly as a muralist, but also as a book illustrator. His murals decorate buildings in Munich. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting
1808 Moritz Schreber a German physician and university teacher at the University of Leipzig. In 1844, he became director of the Leipzig Heilanstalt. His publications predominantly dealt with the subject of children's health and the social consequences of urbanization at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution
1809 Khachatur Abovian an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and eventually presumed dead. He was an educator, poet and an advocate of modernization. Reputed as the father of modern Armenian literature, he is best remembered for his novel Wounds of Armenia. Written in 1841 and published posthumously in 1858, it was the first novel published in the modern Armenian language using the Eastern Armenian dialect instead of Classical Armenian
1809 Aleksey Koltsov a Russian poet who has been called a Russian Burns. His poems, frequently placed in the mouth of women, stylize peasant-life songs and idealize agricultural labour. Koltsov earnestly collected Russian folklore which strongly influenced his poetry. He celebrated simple peasants, their work and their lives. Many of his poems were put to music by such composers as Dargomyzhsky, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov
1810 Giovanni Gozzadini an Italian archeologist.
1810 Simon Sinas a Greek benefactor and diplomat.
1814 Mikhail Lermontov Yuryevich Lermontov , a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", became the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837. Lermontov is considered the supreme poet of Russian literature alongside Pushkin and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism. His influence on later Russian literature is still felt in modern times, not only through his poetry, but also through his prose, which founded the tradition of the Russian psychological novel
1816 Henri Dupuy de Lôme a French naval architect. He was the son of a naval officer and was born in Ploemeur near Lorient, Brittany, in western France. He was educated at the École Polytechnique and ENSTA. He was particularly active during the 1840–1870 period
1818 Alexander Dreyschock a Czech pianist and composer.
1818 Irvin McDowell a career American army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, the first large-scale battle of the American Civil War
1819 Clément Juglar a French doctor and statistician.
1819 Edmund Hoefer a leading German novelist of the second half of the 19th century and a noted literary historian.
1821 Moritz Hartmann a German poet and author.
1822 Edmund Chojecki a Polish journalist, playwright, novelist, poet and translator. Originally hailing from Warsaw, from 1844 he resided in France, where he wrote under the pen name Charles Edmond
1825 Marie of Prussia Queen of Bavaria and the mother of Kings Ludwig II and Otto of Bavaria.
1827 Mihály Zichy a Hungarian painter and graphic artist.
1827 Friedrich Adler (architect) a German architect and archaeologist.
1827 Audishu V Khayyath the patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church in 1894–1899. He was also a Syriac scholar