Died on October 15

412 Pope Theophilus of Alexandria the twenty-third Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of Mark. He became Pope at a time of conflict between the newly dominant Christians and the pagan establishment in Alexandria, each of which was supported by a segment of the Alexandrian populace. Edward Gibbon described him as "...the perpetual enemy of peace and virtue, a bold, bad man, whose hands were alternately polluted with gold and with blood."
892 Al-Mu'tamid about the Abbasid Caliph al-Mu'tamid of Baghdad. For the Andalusi Arabic poet who was also the Abbadid king of Seville, see Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid
898 Lambert II of Spoleto the King of Italy from 891, Holy Roman Emperor, co-ruling with his father from 892, and Duke of Spoleto and Camerino from his father's death in 894. He was the son of Guy III of Spoleto and Ageltrude, born in San Rufino. He was the last ruler to issue a capitulary in the Carolingian tradition
912 Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi the seventh Emir of Córdoba, reigning from 888 to 912 in Al-Andalus.
961 Abd-ar-Rahman III the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba of the Ummayad dynasty in al-Andalus. Called al-Nasir li-Din Allah , he ascended the throne in his early 20s, and reigned for half a century as the most powerful prince of Iberia. Although people of all creeds enjoyed tolerance and freedom of religion under his rule, he repelled the Fatimids, partly by supporting their Maghrawa enemies in North Africa, and partly by claiming the title Caliph for himself
1080 Rudolf of Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia and brother-in-law of King Henry IV of Germany.
1173 Petronilla of Aragon also spelled Petronila or Petronella , was the Queen of Aragon from the abdication of her father in 1137 until her own abdication in 1164. She was the daughter and successor of Ramiro II by his queen, Agnes. She was the last ruling member of the Jiménez dynasty in Aragon, and by marriage brought the throne to the House of Barcelona
1243 Hedwig of Silesia Duchess of Silesia from 1201 and of Greater Poland from 1231 as well as High Duchess consort of Poland from 1232 until 1238. She was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1267
1361 Humphrey de Bohun 6th Earl of Hereford a Lord High Constable of England. He distinguished himself as a captain in the Breton campaigns of the Hundred Years' War, winning the victories of Morlaix and La Roche-Derrien
1385 Dionysius Metropolitan of Kiev a Russian Orthodox metropolitan in 1384–1385.
1389 Pope Urban VI Pope from 8 April 1378 to his death in 1389. He was the last Pope to be elected from outside the College of Cardinals
1404 Marie of Valois Duchess of Bar the sixth child and second daughter of John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia.
1444 Niccolò Piccinino an Italian condottiero.
1496 Gilbert Count of Montpensier the son of Louis de Bourbon and Gabrielle La Tour, Count of Montpensier and Dauphin d'Auvergne. He was appointed to the Order of Saint Michael by Charles VIII in October 1483
1564 Andreas Vesalius a Brabantian anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica. Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. He was professor at the University of Padua and later became Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V
1589 Jacopo Zabarella an Italian Aristotelian philosopher and logician.
1603 Takeda Nobuyoshi a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period. Born Tokugawa Fukumatsumaru, he was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons. His mother is believed to have been Otoma, the daughter of Takeda clan retainer Akiyama Torayasu. As Ieyasu took pity on the destroyed Takeda clan, he changed his son's name to Takeda Manchiyomaru and then Takeda Shichirō Nobuyoshi. He entrusted the boy to the care of the Anayama of Kai Province
1611 Jan Piotr Sapieha a Lithuanian nobleman ; starosta at Uświat, king's colonel, member of the Sejm, commander of the Polish- Lithuanian crew at the Kremlin, nicknamed Hetman.
1648 Simone Cantarini an Italian painter and etcher of the Bolognese School of painting.
1651 James Stanley 7th Earl of Derby a supporter of the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. Before inheriting the title in 1642 he was known as Lord Strange. In the Isle of Man, as Lord of Mann, he was known as "Yn Stanlagh Mooar"
1674 Robert Herrick (poet) a 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric. He is best known for his book of poems, Hesperides. This includes the carpe diem poem To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time, with the first line Gather ye rosebuds while ye may
1684 Géraud de Cordemoy a French philosopher, historian and lawyer. He is mainly known for his works in metaphysics and for his theory of language
1690 Juan de Valdés Leal a Spanish painter and etcher of the Baroque era.
1690 Adam Frans van der Meulen a Flemish Baroque painter specialising in battle scenes. He was active first in Brussels, where he was a pupil of Pieter Snayers, and from the 1660s onwards in Paris
1715 Humphry Ditton an English mathematician.
1730 Jean Baptiste Senaillé a French born Baroque composer and violin virtuoso. His father was a member of Les Vingt-quatre Violons du Roi. Senaillé studied under Jean-Baptiste Anet, Giovanni Antonio Piani and in Italy under Tomaso Antonio Vitali and imported Italian musical techniques and pieces into the French court. He wrote around 50 violin sonatas. He is most well known for a fast 2/4 movement from one of these sonatas, Allegro Spiritoso, which has had versions published transcribed for a wide variety of instruments, from violoncello to bassoon to euphonium
1741 Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg the legal Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg in the eyes of the Holy Roman Emperor, the overlord of Saxe-Lauenburg, from 1689 until 1728; however, because her distant cousin George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, conquered the duchy by force in 1689, she exercised no control over the territory, instead living in her manors in Bohemia.
1767 Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria She was the daughter of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Austria, Holy Roman Empress. She died of smallpox at the age of 16 and was buried in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna, Austria
1774 Dmitry Ukhtomsky the chief architect of Moscow, Russia during the reign of Empress Elizabeth.
1776 John Ellis (naturalist) a British linen merchant and naturalist.
1788 Samuel Greig known in Russia - Scottish-born Russian admiral who distinguished himself in the Battle of Chesma and the Battle of Hogland. His son Alexey Greig also made a spectacular career in the Imperial Russian Navy
1804 Antoine Baumé a French chemist.
1806 Paul Joseph Barthez a French physician, physiologist, and encyclopedist who developed a take on the biological theory known as vitalism.
1808 James Anderson of Hermiston a Scottish agriculturist, journalist and economist. A member of the Edinburgh Philosophical Society, Anderson was a prominent figure in the Scottish Enlightenment. He invented the Scotch plough
1810 Alfred Moore a North Carolina judge who became a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Moore Square, a park located in the Moore Square Historic District in Raleigh, North Carolina was named in his honor. Moore County, established in 1784, also in the state of North Carolina, is named in his honor. Moore was buried at the Philip's Church near Wilmington
1811 Nathaniel Dance-Holland a notable English portrait painter and later a politician.
1817 Tadeusz Kościuszko a Polish military engineer and a military leader who became a national hero in Poland, Belarus, and the United States. He fought in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's struggles against Russia and Prussia, and on the American side in the American Revolutionary War. As Supreme Commander of the Polish National Armed Forces, he led the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising
1819 Sergey Vyazmitinov a Russian general and statesman.
1820 Karl Philipp Prince of Schwarzenberg an Austrian field marshal.
1821 Marian Albertovich Kowalski a Polish-Russian astronomer. Sometimes his last name is given as Kovalsky or Koval'sky or Koval'skiy. In the scientific literature, his name was given as Kowalski or Kowalsky
1827 Lorenzo Hammarsköld a Swedish author.
1829 George Dawe an English portraitist who painted 329 portraits of Russian generals active during Napoleon's invasion of Russia for the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace. He relocated to Saint Petersburg in 1819, where he won acclaim for his work from the artistic establishment and complimentary verses by Pushkin
1833 Michał Kleofas Ogiński a Polish composer, diplomat and politician, Lithuanian Grand Treasurer, and a senator of the Russian Empire.
1833 Victor Henri Joseph Brahain Ducange a French novelist and dramatist, born at the Hague, where his father was secretary to the French embassy.
1834 Prince Mirian of Georgia a Georgian prince of the Bagrationi dynasty, born to King Heraclius II and Queen Darejan Dadiani. After Heraclius placed his kingdom under the Russian protectorate in 1783, Mirian entered the Russian army, attaining to the rank of major general. He reconciled with the Russian annexation of Georgia in 1801, departing to Petersburg, where he ended his days as a senator of the Empire. Of some literary talent, Mirian translated from Russian and himself composed poetry
1837 Ivan Dmitriev a Russian statesman and poet associated with the sentamentalist movement in Russian literature.
1846 Bagyidaw the seventh king of Konbaung dynasty of Burma from 1819 until his abdication in 1837. Prince of Sagaing, as he was commonly known in his day, was selected as crown prince by his grandfather King Bodawpaya in 1808, and became king in 1819 after Bodawpaya's death. Bagyidaw moved the capital from Amarapura back to Ava in 1823
1852 Friedrich Ludwig Jahn a German gymnastics educator and nationalist. His admirers know him as Turnvater Jahn, roughly meaning "father of gymnastics" Jahn
1858 Carl Gustaf Mosander a Swedish chemist. He discovered the elements lanthanum, erbium and terbium
1863 Horace Lawson Hunley a Confederate marine engineer during the American Civil War. He developed early hand-powered submarines, the most famous of which was posthumously named for him, L. Hunley