October 15 events in history

1066 Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England, but is never crowned. Reigned until 10 December 1066
1211 Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris
1529 The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire
1582 Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15
1764 Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
1783 The Montgolfier brothers' hot air balloon (tethered) makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier
1793 Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day
1815 Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean
1863 American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley
1864 American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow is fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy
1878 The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation
1880 Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists
1888 The "From Hell" letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators
1894 The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying
1904 The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War
1910 Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft
1917 World War I: At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire
1923 The German Rentenmark is introduced in Germany to counter hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic
1928 The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States
1932 Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight
1934 The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March
1939 The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated
1940 The President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, is executed by the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco, making him the only European president to have been executed
1944 The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler's NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes power in Hungary
1945 World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason
1951 Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducts the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first three oral contraceptives
1951 The first episode of I Love Lucy, an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, and William Frawley, airs on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
1953 British nuclear test Totem 1 is detonated at Emu Field, South Australia
1954 Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard, killing 95 and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto. As a Category 4 upon landfall, it is the strongest storm on record to strike as far north as North Carolina
1956 Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time
1965 Vietnam War: The Catholic Worker Movement stages an anti-war rally in Manhattan including a public burning of a draft card; the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act
1966 The Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale
1969 Vietnam War; The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam is held in Washington D.C. and across the US. Over two million demonstrate nationally; about 250,000 in Washington D.C
1970 Thirty-five construction workers are killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapses
1970 The domestic Soviet Aeroflot Flight 244 is hijacked and diverted to Turkey
1971 The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia
1979 Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs are ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party
1987 The Great Storm of 1987 hits France and England
1989 Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL
1990 Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation
1995 Marco Campos is killed in an accident in a International Formula 3000 race at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours circuit, making him the only driver ever killed in the International Formula 3000 series
1997 The first supersonic land speed record is set by Andy Green in ThrustSSC (United Kingdom), exactly 50 years and one day after Chuck Yeager first broke the sound barrier in the Earth's atmosphere
1997 The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn
2001 NASA's Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter's moon Io
2003 China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission
2003 The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi runs into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal in Staten Island, killing 11 people and injuring 43
2005 A riot in Toledo, Ohio breaks out during a National Socialist/Neo-Nazi protest; over 100 are arrested
2007 Seventeen activists in New Zealand are arrested in the country's first post 9/11 anti-terrorism raids
2008 The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow's history based on a percentage drop
2011 Global protests break out in 120 cities in 48 countries