Born on October 16

1047 Henry VII Duke of Bavaria the count of Luxembourg from 1026 and duke of Bavaria from 1042 until his death. He was the son of Frederick, count of Moselgau, and possibly Ermentrude of Gleiberg
1351 Gian Galeazzo Visconti the first Duke of Milan and ruled the late-medieval city just before the dawn of the Renaissance. He was the great founding patron of the Certosa di Pavia, completing the Visconti Castle at Pavia begun by his father and furthering work on the Duomo of Milan
1396 William de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk an English commander in the Hundred Years' War and Lord High Admiral of England from 1447 until 1450. He was nicknamed Jack Napes, from which the word "jackanapes" derives. He also appears prominently in William Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 1 and Henry VI, Part 2
1430 James II of Scotland the son of James I and Joan Beaufort. Nothing is known of his early life, but by his first birthday his twin and only brother, Alexander, who was also the older twin, had died, thus making James the heir apparent and Duke of Rothesay. Curiously enough, James held no other titles while Duke of Rothesay. On 21 February 1437, James I was assassinated and the six-year-old Duke of Rothesay immediately succeeded him as James II
1483 Gasparo Contarini an Italian diplomat, cardinal and Bishop of Belluno. He was one of the first proponents of the dialogue with Protestants, after the Reformation
1524 Nicolas Duke of Mercœur the second son of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée de Bourbon.
1535 Niwa Nagahide a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku through Azuchi-Momoyama periods of the 16th century. He served as a retainer to the Oda clan, and was eventually a daimyo in his own right
1605 Charles Coypeau d'Assoucy a French musician and burlesque poet. In the mid-1630s he began using the nom de plume "D'Assouci" or "Dassoucy"
1620 Pierre Puget a French painter, sculptor, architect and engineer.
1652 Karl Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst.
1679 Jan Dismas Zelenka a Czech composer and musician of the Baroque period. His music is admired for its harmonic inventiveness and counterpoint
1689 Robert Smith (mathematician) an English mathematician and music theorist.
1708 Albrecht von Haller a Swiss anatomist, physiologist, naturalist and poet. A pupil of Herman Boerhaave, he is often referred to as "the father of modern physiology."
1710 András Hadik a Hungarian nobleman and Field Marshal of the Habsburg Army. He was Governor of Galicia and Lodomeria from January 1774 to June 1774, and the father of Karl Joseph Hadik von Futak. He is famous for capturing the Prussian capital Berlin during the Seven Years' War
1714 Giovanni Arduino (geologist) known as the "Father of Italian Geology".
1720 Johann Georg Sulzer a Swiss professor of Mathematics, who later on moved on to the field of electricity. He was a Wolffian philosopher and director of the philosophical section of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, and translator of David Hume's An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals into German in 1755
1726 Daniel Chodowiecki most famous as an etcher. He spent most of his life in Berlin, and became the director of the Berlin Academy of Art
1729 Pierre van Maldere a violinist and composer from the Southern Low Countries.
1751 Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt Queen consort of Prussia as the second wife of King Frederick William II.
1752 Adolph Freiherr Knigge a German writer, Freemason, and a leading member of the Order of the Illuminati.
1753 Johann Gottfried Eichhorn a German Protestant theologian of the Enlightenment and an early orientalist.
1754 Morgan Lewis (governor) an American lawyer, politician and military commander.
1758 Noah Webster an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". His blue-backed speller books taught five generations of American children how to spell and read, secularizing their education. According to Ellis he gave Americans "a secular catechism to the nation-state"
1758 Johann Heinrich von Dannecker a German sculptor.
1760 Jonathan Dayton an American politician from the U.S. state of New Jersey. He was the youngest person to sign the United States Constitution and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, serving as the fourth Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, and later the U.S. Senate. Dayton was arrested in 1807 for treason in connection with Aaron Burr's conspiracy, he was never put on trial, but his national political career never recovered
1762 Paul Hamilton (politician) the 3rd United States Secretary of the Navy, from 1809 to 1813.
1789 William Burton (governor) an American physician and politician from Milford, in Kent County, Delaware. He was a member of the Democratic Party, who served as Governor of Delaware
1795 William Buell Sprague an American Congregational and Presbyterian clergyman and compiler of Annals of the American Pulpit , a comprehensive biographical dictionary of the leading American Protestant Christian ministers who died before 1850.
1797 James Brudenell 7th Earl of Cardigan an officer in the British Army who commanded the Light Brigade during the Crimean War. He led the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava
1799 Isaac Murphy the first Reconstruction Governor of Arkansas, and came to power under President Abraham Lincoln's conciliatory policy.
1801 Josip Jelačić the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia
1803 James Edward Alexander a Scottish soldier, traveller and author.
1803 Robert Stephenson an early railway engineer. The only son of George Stephenson, the "Father of Railways", he built on the achievements of his father. Robert has been called the greatest engineer of the 19th century
1803 Karl Schorn a German painter and chess master.
1804 Benjamin Russell (artist) an American artist best known for his accurate watercolors of whaling ships working in New England. Born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, to a wealthy family, Russell started drawing and painting in his late 30s, after a few years spent working as a cooper aboard a whaling ship
1805 Jean Laborde an adventurer and early industrialist in Madagascar. He became the chief engineer of the Merina monarchy, supervising the creation of a modern manufacturing center under Queen Ranavalona Later he became the first French consul to Madagascar, when the government of Napoleon III used him to establish French influence on the island
1806 William P. Fessenden an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. Fessenden was a Whig and member of the Fessenden political family. He served in the United States House of Representatives and Senate before becoming Secretary of the Treasury under President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War
1810 Juliusz Konstanty Ordon a participant of the Polish November Uprising in 1830-1831.
1812 Alexander Lindsay 25th Earl of Crawford a Scottish peer, art historian and collector.
1813 Johannes Ronge the principal founder of the New Catholics. A Roman Catholic priest from the region of Upper Silesia in Prussia, he was suspended from the priesthood for his criticisms of the church, and went on to help found and promote the New Catholic movement. When the movement split, he led the more liberal wing, which became known as the German Catholics. Following his involvement in the political struggles of 1848 he went into exile in England, where he and his wife Bertha Ronge established a kindergarten in Manchester and then Leeds. He returned to Prussia in 1861 following an amnesty, and made efforts to revive the German Catholic movement and to combat antisemitism
1815 Francis Lubbock the ninth Governor of Texas and was in office during the American Civil War. He was the brother of Thomas Saltus Lubbock, for whom Lubbock County, Texas and the City of Lubbock are named
1816 Antoine Béchamp a French chemist and biologist now best known as a rival of Louis Pasteur. Béchamp did pioneering work in industrial chemistry, developing an efficient process to produce aniline dye which was central to the development of the synthetic dye industry. He also developed p-aminophenylarsonate, an organic arsenic compound used to treat parasitic diseases
1819 Austin F. Pike a United States Representative and Senator from New Hampshire. Born in Hebron, New Hampshire, he pursued an academic course, studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Merrimack County in 1845. He was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1850 to 1852 and in 1865–1866, and served as speaker during the last two years. He was a member of the New Hampshire Senate in 1857–1858, serving as president the last year
1821 Franz Doppler a flute virtuoso and a composer best known for his flute music. He also wrote one German and several Hungarian operas for Budapest, all produced with great success. His ballet music was popular during his lifetime
1827 Arnold Böcklin a Swiss symbolist painter.
1828 Nikolay Strakhov a Russian philosopher, publicist and literary critic who shared the ideals of pochvennichestvo. He was a long-time friend and correspondent of Leo Tolstoy
1831 Lucy Stanton (abolitionist) an American abolitionist and feminist figure, notable for being the first African American to complete a four-year course of a study at a college or university. She graduated from Oberlin Collegiate Institute on August 27, 1850
1832 Vicente Riva Palacio a Mexican liberal politician and intellectual.
1833 Walter Clopton Wingfield a Welsh inventor and a British army officer who was one of the pioneers of lawn tennis. Inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1997, as the founder of Modern Lawn Tennis, an example of the original equipment for the sport and a bust of Wingfield himself can be seen at the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum
1837 John Francis Barnett an English music composer and teacher.