Died on October 16

786 Lullus the first permanent archbishop of Mainz, succeeding Saint Boniface, and first abbot of the Benedictine Hersfeld Abbey.
976 Al-Hakam II the second Caliph of Córdoba, in Al-Andalus , and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan. He ruled from 961 to 976
1071 Almodis de la Marche the daughter of Bernard I, Count of Marche and wife Amélie. She married Hugh V of Lusignan around 1038 and they had two sons and one daughter:
1190 Louis III Landgrave of Thuringia a German nobleman. He was a member of the Ludowingians dynasty and was the ruling Landgrave of Thuringia from 1172 until his death
1323 Amadeus V Count of Savoy the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat. He was the son of Thomas II of Savoy and Beatrice Fieschi
1333 Antipope Nicholas V an antipope in Italy from 12 May 1328 to 25 July 1330 during the pontificate of Pope John XXII at Avignon. He was the last Imperial antipope, that is, set up by a Holy Roman Emperor
1355 Louis King of Sicily King of Sicily from 15 September 1342 until his death. He was a minor upon his succession, and was under a regency until 1354. His actual rule was short, for he died in an outbreak of plague the next year. His reign was marked by civil war
1382 Michele Morosini the Doge of Venice for a few months, from 10 June 1382 to his death in October the same year.
1386 Hugh de Stafford 2nd Earl of Stafford an English nobleman.
1422 John IV Duke of Mecklenburg sole ruler of the Duchy of Mecklenburg from 1384 to 1395 and co-regent from 1395 to 1422.
1537 Françoise de Foix a mistress of Francis I of France.
1553 Lucas Cranach the Elder a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm, becoming a close friend of Martin Luther. He also painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition, and later trying to find new ways of conveying Lutheran religious concerns in art. He continued throughout his career to paint nude subjects drawn from mythology and religion. He had a large workshop and many works exist in different versions; his son Lucas Cranach the Younger, and others, continued to create versions of his father's works for decades after his death. Lucas Cranach the Elder has been considered the most successful German artist of his time
1555 Sue Harukata a retainer of the Ōuchi clan in the Sengoku period in Japan. Harukata would later become a daimyo. He was the second son of Sue Okifusa, senior retainer of the Ōuchi clan. His childhood name was Goro. Before Harukata he had the name of Takafusa. He is also erroneously known as Harutaka
1555 Hugh Latimer a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Bishop of Worcester before the Reformation, and later Church of England chaplain to King Edward In 1555 under Queen Mary he was burned at the stake, becoming one of the three Oxford Martyrs of Anglicanism.
1555 Nicholas Ridley (martyr) an English Bishop of London Ridley was burned at the stake, as one of the Oxford Martyrs, during the Marian Persecutions, for his teachings and his support of Lady Jane Grey. Ridley is remembered with a commemoration in the calendar of saints in some parts of the Anglican Communion on 16 October
1573 Asakura Yoshikage a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period who ruled a part of Echizen Province in present-day Fukui Prefecture. Yoshikage's conflicts with Oda Nobunaga resulted in his death and the destruction of the Asakura clan and its castle, Ichijōdani Castle
1590 Archduchess Anna of Austria the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
1591 Pope Gregory XIV Pope from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591.
1594 William Allen (cardinal) an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Allen assisted in the planning of the Spanish Armada's attempted invasion of England, and would likely have been made Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor had it been successful. The Douai-Rheims Bible was printed under Allen's orders. His activities were part of the Catholic Counter Reformation, but they made matters worse for Roman Catholics in England and in Ireland. He advised and recommended Pope Pius V to "depose" Elizabeth After her Sentence of Excommunication and "Deposition" from the Pope, Elizabeth chose not to continue with her policy of religious tolerance, and instead began the persecution of her Catholic religious opponents
1609 Dorothea Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by birth and by marriage Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst.
1615 Françoise de Cezelli a French war hero. She distinguished herself when the village of Leucate was besieged by Spanish forces allied with the Catholic League in 1590, after her husband, the governor, was captured and executed by the enemy
1621 Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck a Dutch composer, organist, and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras. He was among the first major keyboard composers of Europe, and his work as a teacher helped establish the north German organ tradition
1628 François de Malherbe a French poet, critic, and translator.
1634 Magdalene of Nagasaki born in 1611 as the daughter of a Christian couple martyred about 1620. With the arrival of the Augustinian Order, Magdalene served as an Augustinian lay sister or tertiary, interpreter and catechist for Fathers Francis of Jesus Terrero and Vincent of Saint Anthony Simoens
1649 Isaac van Ostade a Dutch genre and landscape painter.
1653 Jan Wildens a Flemish Baroque painter and draughtsman specializing in landscapes.
1654 Hercule Duke of Montbazon a member of the princely House of Rohan. The second Duke of Montbazon, he is an ancestor of the present Princes of Guéméné. His daughter was the famous Frondeur the duchesse de Chevreuse. He was a Peer of France
1655 Joseph Solomon Delmedigo a rabbi, author, physician, mathematician, and music theorist.
1679 Roger Boyle 1st Earl of Orrery a soldier, dramatist and politician from the British Isles who sat in the House of Commons of England at various times between 1654 and 1679. Lord Broghill, as Boyle was then called, fought in the Irish Confederate Wars and subsequently became known for his antagonism towards Irish Catholics and their political aspirations. He was a noted playwright and writer on 17th century warfare
1680 Raimondo Montecuccoli an Italian military commander who also served as general for the Habsburg Monarchy, and was also a prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan Duke of Melfi.
1700 Patriarch Adrian of Moscow the last pre-revolutionary Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
1730 Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha served as Grand Vizier for Sultan Ahmed III of the Ottoman Empire during the Tulip period. He was also the head of a ruling family which had great influence in the court of Ahmed III. The epithet "Nevşehirli" is used to distinguish this Grand Vizier from another, Damat Ibrahim Pasha
1750 Sylvius Leopold Weiss a German composer and lutenist.
1755 Gerard Majella C.Ss.R. was an Italian lay brother of the Congregation of the Redeemer, better known as the Redemptorists, who is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church. His intercession is sought for children, unborn children, women in childbirth, mothers, expectant mothers, motherhood, falsely accused people, good confessions, lay brothers and Muro Lucano, Italy
1767 Nikita Trubetskoy a Russian statesman and Field Marshal , minister of defense of Russia 1760.
1767 Burkhard Christoph von Münnich a German soldier-engineer who became a field marshal and political figure in the Russian Empire. He was the major Russian Army reformer and founder of several elite military formations during the reign of Anna of Russia. As a statesman, he is regarded as the founder of Russian Philhellenism. Münnich also was a hereditary engineer and a specialist in hydrotechnology. He had the grade of count of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. For all his contributions he is rather a forgotten Russian hero, whose resting place was later desecrated by the Soviet Army
1772 Ahmad Shah Durrani regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. He began his career by enlisting as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose to become a commander of the Abdali Regiment, a cavalry of four thousand Abdali Pashtun soldiers
1774 Robert Fergusson a Scottish poet. After formal education at the University of St Andrews, Fergusson followed an essentially bohemian life course in Edinburgh, the city of his birth, then at the height of intellectual and cultural ferment as part of the Scottish enlightenment. Many of his extant poems were printed from 1771 onwards in Walter Ruddiman's Weekly Magazine, and a collected works was first published early in 1773. Despite a short life, his career was highly influential, especially through its impact on Robert Burns. He wrote both Scottish English and the Scots language, and it is his vivid and masterly writing in the latter leid for which he is principally acclaimed
1781 Edward Hawke 1st Baron Hawke an officer of the Royal Navy. He is best remembered for his service during the Seven Years' War , particularly his victory over a French fleet at the Battle of Quiberon Bay in 1759, preventing a French invasion of Britain. A number of Royal Navy warships were named after him, in commemoration of this. He had also won an earlier victory, the Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1747 which made his name. Hawke acquired a reputation as a "fighting officer" which allowed his career to prosper, despite him possessing a number of political enemies. He developed the concept of a Western Squadron, keeping an almost continuous blockade of the French coast throughout the war
1791 Grigory Potemkin a Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favorite of Catherine the Great. He died during negotiations over the Treaty of Jassy, which ended a war with the Ottoman Empire that he had overseen
1793 Marie Antoinette Dauphine of France from 1770 to 1774 and Queen of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792. She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I
1793 John Hunter (surgeon) a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day. He was an early advocate of careful observation and scientific method in medicine. He was a teacher of, friend of, and collaborator with, Edward Jenner, the inventor of the smallpox vaccine. His wife, Anne Hunter , was a minor poet, some of whose poems were set to music by Joseph Haydn
1796 Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia King of Sardinia from 1773 until his death. Although he was politically conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until declaring war on revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia
1796 Antoine-Joseph Pernety a French writer. At various times he was a Benedictine, and librarian of Frederic the Great of Prussia. Together with the Polish Count Tadeusz Grabianka, also influenced by the Christian mysticism of Swedenborg he founded in 1760 the secret society of ‘Rite hermétique’ or Illuminati of Avignon
1799 Antoine-Frédéric Gresnick a Belgian classical composer. He was born in Liège. He studied music in Naples. By 1780 Gresnick was working in Lyons and, after visiting Berlin and London, he moved in 1794 to Paris where he died in 1799. He is chiefly remembered for writing opera buffa, of which he wrote at least twenty-three
1799 Veerapandiya Kattabomman a courageous 18th-century Palayakarrar chieftain from Panchalankurichi of Tamil Nadu, India. His ancestors migrated to Tamil Nadu from Kandukur area of Prakasam district in present day Andhra Pradesh during the Vijayanagara period. Also known as Kattabomma Nayakkar he was among the earliest to oppose British rule in these regions. He waged a war with the British six decades before the Indian War of Independence occurred in the Northern parts of India. He was captured and hanged in 1799 His fort was destroyed and his wealth was looted by the British army. Today his native village Panchalankurichi in present day Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu is a historically important site. Some polygars families also migrated to vedal village in Kanchipuram District, India
1805 Mihrişah Valide Sultan a Georgian consort to Ottoman Sultan Mustafa III. She was the mother of Sultan Selim III of the Ottoman Empire and his de facto co-regent as the Valide Sultan for sixteen years from 1789 until 1805
1810 Nachman of Breslov the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement.
1813 Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur vicomte de Rochambeau a French soldier, the son of Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau.
1822 Eva Marie Veigel a dancer and the wife of actor David Garrick.