October 16 events in history

456 Magister militum Ricimer defeats Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the Western Roman Empire
690 Empress Wu Zetian ascends to the throne of the Tang dynasty and proclaims herself ruler of the Chinese Empire
1384 Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is a woman
1590 Carlo Gesualdo, composer, Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza, murders his wife, Donna Maria d'Avalos, and her lover Fabrizio Carafa, the Duke of Andria at the Palazzo San Severo in Naples
1780 Royalton, Vermont and Tunbridge, Vermont are the last major raids of the American Revolutionary War
1781 George Washington captures Yorktown, Virginia after the Siege of Yorktown
1793 Marie Antoinette, widow of Louis XVI, is guillotined at the height of the French Revolution
1793 The Battle of Wattignies ends in a French victory
1813 The Sixth Coalition attacks Napoleon Bonaparte in the Battle of Leipzig
1834 Much of the ancient structure of the Palace of Westminster in London burns to the ground
1841 Queen's University is founded in Kingston, Ontario, Canada
1843 Sir William Rowan Hamilton comes up with the idea of quaternions, a non-commutative extension of complex numbers
1846 William T. G. Morton first demonstrated ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hospital in the Ether Dome
1859 John Brown leads a raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia
1869 The Cardiff Giant, one of the most famous American hoaxes, is "discovered"
1869 Girton College, Cambridge is founded, becoming England's first residential college for women
1875 Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah
1882 The Nickel Plate Railroad opens for business
1905 The Partition of Bengal in India takes place
1906 The Captain of Köpenick fools the city hall of Köpenick and several soldiers by impersonating a Prussian officer
1909 William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz hold a summit, a first between a U.S. and a Mexican president, and they only narrowly escape assassination
1916 In Brooklyn, New York, Margaret Sanger opens the first family planning clinic in the United States
1923 The Walt Disney Company is founded by Walt Disney and his brother, Roy Disney
1934 Chinese Communists begin the Long March; it ended a year and four days later, by which time Mao Zedong had regained his title as party chairman
1939 World War II: First attack on British territory by the German Luftwaffe
1940 Holocaust: The Warsaw Ghetto is established
1944 Wally Walrus, Woody Woodpecker's first steady foil, was debuted at the The Beach Nut, a Walter Lantz's cartoon
1945 The Food and Agriculture Organization is founded in Quebec City, Canada
1946 Nuremberg Trials: Execution of the convicted Nazi leaders of the Main Trial
1949 Nikolaos Zachariadis, leader of the Communist Party of Greece, announces a "temporary cease-fire", effectively ending the Greek Civil War
1949 The diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic are established
1951 The first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, is assassinated in Rawalpindi
1964 China detonates its first nuclear weapon
1964 Soviet leaders Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin are inaugurated as General Secretary of the CPSU and Premier, respectively and the collective leadership is established
1968 United States athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos are kicked off the US team for participating in the 1968 Olympics Black Power salute
1968 Kingston, Jamaica is rocked by the Rodney Riots, inspired by the barring of Walter Rodney from the country
1968 Yasunari Kawabata becomes the first Japanese person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
1970 In response to the October Crisis terrorist kidnapping, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau of Canada invokes the War Measures Act
1973 Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
1975 The Balibo Five, a group of Australian-based television journalists based in the town of Balibo in the then Portuguese Timor (now East Timor), are killed by Indonesian troops
1975 Rahima Banu, a two-year old girl from the village of Kuralia in Bangladesh, is the last known person to be infected with naturally occurring smallpox
1975 The Australian Coalition opposition parties using their senate majority, vote to defer the decision to grant supply of funds for the Whitlam Government's annual budget, sparking the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis
1978 Karol Wojtyla is elected Pope John Paul II after the October 1978 Papal conclave, the first non-Italian pontiff since 1523
1978 Wanda Rutkiewicz is the first Pole and the first European woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest
1984 The Bill debuted on ITV, eventually becoming the longest-running police procedural in British television history
1984 Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
1986 Reinhold Messner becomes the first person to summit all 14 Eight-thousanders
1991 Luby's shooting: George Hennard runs amok in Killeen, Texas, killing 23 and wounding 20 in Luby's Cafeteria
1993 Anti-Nazism riot breaks out in Welling in Kent, after police stop protesters approaching the British National Party headquarters
1995 The Million Man March occurs in Washington, D.C