Born on October 17

1253 Ivo of Kermartin Saint Ivo of Kermartin, T.O.S.F. also known Yvo or Ives, as Erwann and as Yves Hélory , was a parish priest among the poor of Louannec, the only one of his station to be canonized in the Middle Ages. He is the patron of Brittany, lawyers and abandoned children. His feast day is 19 May. Poetically, he is referred to as "Advocate of the Poor"
1488 Ursula of Brandenburg a German noblewoman.
1493 Bartolommeo Bandinelli a Renaissance Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter.
1549 Denis Godefroy a French jurist, a member of the noted Godefroy family. He worked in France and Germany
1577 Cristofano Allori an Italian portrait painter of the late Florentine Mannerist school. Allori was born at Florence and received his first lessons in painting from his father, Alessandro Allori, but becoming dissatisfied with the hard anatomical drawing and cold coloring of the latter, he entered the studio of Gregorio Pagani, who was one of the leaders of the late Florentine school, which sought to unite the rich coloring of the Venetians with the Florentine attention to drawing. Allori also appears to have worked under Cigoli
1577 Dmitry Pozharsky Mikhaylovich Pozharsky , a Rurikid prince, led Russian forces against Polish-Lithuanian invaders in 1611-1612 towards the end of the Time of Troubles. He obtained from Mikhail I of Russia the unprecedented title Saviour of the Motherland
1582 Johann Gerhard a Lutheran church leader and Lutheran Scholastic theologian during the period of Orthodoxy.
1587 Nathan Field an English dramatist and actor.
1623 Francis Turretin a Swiss-Italian Reformed scholastic theologian.
1629 Balthasar Charles Prince of Asturias heir apparent to all the kingdoms, states and dominions of the Spanish monarchy until his death.
1666 John William III Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach.
1680 Anna Constantia von Brockdorff a German noblewoman and mistress of Augustus the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. Eventually he turned against her and exiled her to Saxony, where she died after 49 years of imprisonment
1688 Domenico Zipoli an Italian Baroque composer who worked and died in Córdoba. He became a Jesuit in order to work in the Reductions of Paraguay where his musical expertise contributed to develop the natural musical talents of the Guaranis. He is remembered as the most accomplished musician among Jesuit missionaries
1696 Augustus III of Poland King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II.
1697 Canaletto an Italian painter of landscapes, or vedute, of Venice. He was also an important printmaker in etching
1711 Jupiter Hammon a black poet who in 1761 became the first African-American writer to be published in the present-day United States. Additional poems and sermons were also published. Born into slavery, Hammon was never emancipated. He was living in 1790 at the age of 79, and died by 1806. A devout Christian, he is considered one of the founders of African-American literature
1719 Jacques Cazotte a French author.
1720 Maria Teresa Agnesi Pinottini an Italian composer. Though she was most famous for her compositions, she was also an accomplished harpsichordist and singer, and the majority of her surviving compositions were written for keyboard, the voice, or both. She was born in Milan to Pietro Agnesi, an overbearing man in the lesser nobility. He provided early education for both Maria Teresa and her more famous older sister, Maria Gaetana, a mathematics and language prodigy who lectured and debated all over Europe while her sister performed. Maria Teresa was married to Pier Antonio Pinottini on June 13, 1752, and they settled in a district populated by intellects and artists, but eventually suffered severe financial ruin. Pinottini died not too long afterwards
1720 Geneviève Thiroux d'Arconville a French author and chemist.
1724 Johann Siegfried Hufnagel a German parson and entomologist.
1725 John Wilkes an English radical, journalist, and politician.
1729 Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny a French composer and a member of the French Académie des Beaux-Arts.
1739 Anne-Pierre marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac a French general and writer.
1751 Johann Michael Sailer a German Jesuit professor of theology and Bishop of Ratisbon.
1759 Jakob II Bernoulli younger brother of Johann III Bernoulli. Having finished his literary studies, he was, according to custom, sent to Neuchâtel to learn French. On his return, he graduated in law. This study, however, did not check his hereditary taste for geometry. The early lessons which he had received from his father were continued by his uncle Daniel, and such was his progress that at the age of twenty-one he was called to undertake the duties of the chair of experimental physics, which his uncle’s advanced years rendered him unable to discharge. He afterwards accepted the situation of secretary to count de Brenner, which afforded him an opportunity of seeing Germany and Italy. In Italy, he formed a friendship with Lorgna, professor of mathematics at Verona, and one of the founders of the Società Italiana for the encouragement of the sciences. He was also made corresponding member of the royal society of Turin; and, while residing at Venice, he was, through the friendly representation of Nicolaus von Fuss, admitted into the academy of St Petersburg. In 1788, he was named one of its mathematical professors
1759 Andrey Voronikhin a Russian architect and painter. As a representative of classicism he was also one of the founders of the monumental Russian Empire style. Born a serf of the Stroganov family, he is best known for his work on Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg
1760 Claude Henri de Rouvroy comte de Saint-Simon a French early socialist theorist whose thought influenced the foundations of various 19th century philosophies, including the philosophy of science and the discipline of sociology. His thought played a substantial role in influencing positivism, Marxism and the ideas of Thorstein Veblen
1765 Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke a Marshal of France and French politician of Irish descent.
1768 Sophie von Dönhoff a German lady-in-waiting and a morganatic spouse by bigamy to King Frederick William II of Prussia.
1780 Richard Mentor Johnson the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. He is the only vice president ever elected by the United States Senate under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment. Johnson also represented Kentucky in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate; he began and ended his political career in the Kentucky House of Representatives
1781 Johann Friedrich Meckel a German anatomist born in Halle. He worked as a professor of anatomy, pathology and zoology at the University of Halle, Germany
1784 Fructuoso Rivera an Uruguayan general and patriot who assisted in the efforts to force Brazilians out of the Banda Oriental.
1785 Christen Smith an early 19th-century Norwegian physician, economist and naturalist, particularly botanist. He died, only 30 years old during a dramatic expedition to the Congo River in 1816, leaving a wealth of botanical material
1789 Thomas Keightley a writer known for his works on mythology and folklore, particularly Fairy Mythology which has been reprinted as The World Guide to Gnomes, Fairies, Elves, and Other Little People. Regarded as a pioneer in the study of Folklore by modern scholars in the field, he was one of the "early and important compartivist collectors" of folklore. A circumspect scholar, he did not deem that similar tales recognizable across countries automatically signified transmission, but allowed that similar tales could arise independently in different cultures
1792 John Bowring an English political economist, traveller, miscellaneous writer, polyglot, and the 4th Governor of Hong Kong.
1796 Leopold Kupelwieser an Austrian painter, often associated with the Nazarene movement.
1801 Ustazade Silvestre de Sacy a French journalist. The son of Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy , he was from 1828 to 1877 a literary and political contributor to Journal des Débats. He became a curator at the Bibliothèque Mazarine in 1836 and became its administrator in 1848. He was elected to the Académie française on 18 May 1854, and became a senator in 1865
1803 Ferenc Deák a Hungarian statesman and Minister of Justice. He was known as "The Wise Man of the Nation"
1803 Karl Karmarsch an Austrian-born German educator, founding director of the Polytechnic School in Hanover, later to become the University of Hannover.
1804 Nikolai Nadezhdin a Russian literary critic and Russia's first ethnographer.
1811 Albertus van Raalte a 19th-century Dutch Reformed clergyman. Van Raalte was first ordained in the Secession Church in 1836, before moving to the United States, and was eventually ordained in the Reformed Church in America. When he visited the lower peninsula of Michigan, he found the area to be what he believed to be ideal for farming, the occupation of many in the Netherlands who were being burdened by high taxes and very little land, so little that farmers could no longer divide their land between their sons as an inheritance. van Raalte sent home a handbill with such glowing descriptions of the area that many farmers' sons emigrated, cleared the heavily wooded land and found the farming to be fruitful. van Raalte himself was the spiritual leader for the Protestant, Reformed, Dutch immigrants who founded the city of Holland, Michigan in 1846 and played an important role in establishing the school that would become Hope College
1812 Jeremiah Gurney an American daguerreotype photographer operating in New York.
1813 Georg Büchner a German dramatist and writer of poetry and prose. He was also a revolutionary, a natural scientist, and the brother of physician and philosopher Ludwig Büchner. His literary achievements, though few in number, are generally held in great esteem in Germany and it is widely believed that, had it not been for his early death, he might have joined such central German literary figures as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller at the summit of their profession
1814 Yakiv Holovatsky a noted historian, literary scholar, ethnographer, linguist, bibliographer, lexicographer, and poet.
1815 John Lemoinne a French journalist.
1817 Alfred Des Cloizeaux a French mineralogist.
1817 Syed Ahmad Khan an Anglo-Indian Muslim philosopher, pragmatist, and social activist of nineteenth century India. In 1842, Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar–II conferred upon Sir Syed the title of Javad-ud Daulah, conferred upon Sir Syed's grandfather Syed Hadi by Emperor Shah Alam II around the middle of the 18th century
1818 Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa an important German chess master, chess historian and theoretician of the nineteenth century, a member of the Berlin Chess Club and a founder of the Berlin Chess School.
1819 Frederick William Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz a German sovereign who ruled over the state of Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1860 until his death.
1820 Édouard Roche best known for his work in the field of celestial mechanics. His name was given to the concepts of the Roche sphere, Roche limit and Roche lobe. He also was the author of works in meteorology