Born on October 18

1081 Nikephoros Palaiologos a Byzantine general of the 11th century.
1125 Emperor Go-Shirakawa the 77th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1155 through 1158
1130 Zhu Xi a Song dynasty Confucian scholar who was the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. His contributions to Chinese philosophy including his assigning special significance to the Analects, the Mencius, the Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean , his emphasis on the investigation of things , and the synthesis of all fundamental Confucian concepts, formed the basis of Chinese bureaucracy and government for over 700 years. He has been called the second most influential thinker in Chinese history, after Confucius himself
1239 Stephen V of Hungary King of Hungary and Croatia between 1270 and 1272, and Duke of Styria from 1258 to 1260. He was the oldest son of King Béla IV and Maria Laskarina. King Béla had his son crowned king at the age of six and appointed him Duke of Slavonia. Still a child, Stephen married Elizabeth, a daughter of a chieftain of the Cumans whom his father settled in the Great Hungarian Plain
1262 Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville de Raby a Norman nobleman and member of the powerful Neville family, son of Robert de Neville and Mary fitz Ranulf.
1405 Pope Pius II Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464. He was born at Corsignano in the Sienese territory of a noble but decayed family. His longest and most enduring work is the story of his life, the Commentaries, which is the only autobiography ever written by a reigning Pope. He is also known for his erotic writings done before he was ordained a priest
1508 Patrick Hepburn 1st Earl of Bothwell Lord High Admiral of Scotland. He rose to political prominence after supporting James IV against his father, and was proxy at the King's marriage
1517 Manuel da Nóbrega a Portuguese Jesuit priest and first Provincial of the Society of Jesus in colonial Brazil. Together with José de Anchieta, he was very influential in the early History of Brazil, and participated in the founding of several cities, such as Recife, Salvador, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, and many Jesuit Colleges and seminaries
1523 Anna Jagiellon queen of Poland from 1575 to 1586. She was the daughter of Poland's King Sigismund I the Old, and the wife of Stephen Báthory. She was elected, along with her then fiancé, Báthory, as co-ruler in the second election of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Anna was the last member of the Jagiellon dynasty
1547 Justus Lipsius a Flemish philologist and humanist. Lipsius wrote a series of works designed to revive ancient Stoicism in a form that would be compatible with Christianity. The most famous of these is De Constantia. His form of Stoicism influenced a number of contemporary thinkers, creating the intellectual movement of Neostoicism. He taught at the universities in Jena, Leiden and Leuven
1553 Luca Marenzio an Italian composer and singer of the late Renaissance. He was one of the most renowned composers of madrigals, and wrote some of the most famous examples of the form in its late stage of development, prior to its early Baroque transformation by Monteverdi. In all, Marenzio wrote around 500 madrigals, ranging from the lightest to the most serious styles, packed with word-painting, chromaticism, and other characteristics of the late madrigal style. Marenzio was influential as far away as England, where his earlier, lighter work appeared in 1588 in the Musica Transalpina, the collection that initiated the madrigal craze in that country. Marenzio worked in the service of several aristocratic Italian families, including the Gonzaga, Este, and Medici, and spent most of his career in Rome
1569 Giambattista Marino an Italian poet who was born in Naples. He is most famous for his long epic L'Adone
1571 Wolfgang Ratke a German educational reformer.
1583 Takeda Nobuyoshi a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period. Born Tokugawa Fukumatsumaru, he was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons. His mother is believed to have been Otoma, the daughter of Takeda clan retainer Akiyama Torayasu. As Ieyasu took pity on the destroyed Takeda clan, he changed his son's name to Takeda Manchiyomaru and then Takeda Shichirō Nobuyoshi. He entrusted the boy to the care of the Anayama of Kai Province
1585 Heinrich Schütz a German composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and often considered to be one of the most important composers of the 17th century. He wrote what is traditionally considered to be the first German opera, Dafne, performed at Torgau in 1627, the music of which has since been lost. He is commemorated as a musician in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 28 July with Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel
1616 Nicholas Culpeper an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer. His published books include The English Physician and the Complete Herbal , which contain a rich store of pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge, and Astrological Judgement of Diseases from the Decumbiture of the Sick , which is one of the most detailed documents we have on the practice of medical astrology in Early Modern Europe
1619 Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé a French admiral.
1634 Luca Giordano an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain
1653 Abraham van Riebeeck a Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He was born in the Cape Colony in South Africa, and was the son of Jan van Riebeeck. One of Abraham's children was Johanna Maria van Riebeeck , who had married his predecessor Governor-General, Joan van Hoorn. After he finished his studies in the Netherlands in 1676, he entered the Dutch East India Company as a merchant
1662 Matthew Henry a Welsh Non-Conformist minister.
1663 Prince Eugene of Savoy a general and statesman of the Holy Roman Empire and the Austrian monarchy and one of the most successful military commanders in modern European history, rising to the highest offices of state at the Imperial court in Vienna. Born in Paris, Eugene grew up around the French court of King Louis XIV. Based on his poor physique and bearing, the Prince was initially prepared for a career in the church, but by the age of 19 he had determined on a military career. Rejected by Louis XIV for service in the French army, Eugene moved to Austria and transferred his loyalty to the Habsburg Monarchy
1668 John George IV Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1691 to 1694.
1671 Frederick IV Duke of Holstein-Gottorp the reigning Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.
1679 Ann Putnam Jr. an important witness at the Salem Witch Trials of Massachusetts during the later portion of 17th century Colonial America. Born 1679 in Salem Village, Essex County, Massachusetts, she was the eldest child of Thomas Putnam and Ann Carr. She was friends with some of the girls who claimed to be afflicted by witchcraft and, in March 1692, proclaimed to be afflicted herself. These accusations resulted in the execution of a number of people
1693 Jeremiah Markland an English classical scholar.
1697 Luigi Maria Torregiani an Italian Cardinal.
1701 Charles le Beau a French historical writer.
1706 Baldassare Galuppi an Italian composer, born on the island of Burano in the Venetian Republic. He belonged to a generation of composers, including Christoph Willibald Glück, Domenico Scarlatti, and CPE Bach, whose works comprised the transition from Baroque to Classical-era music. He achieved international success, spending periods of his career in Vienna, London and Saint Petersburg, but his main base remained Venice, where he held a succession of leading appointments
1728 Peter Frederik Suhm a Danish-Norwegian historian.
1738 Andrey Bolotov the most prolific memoirist and the most distinguished agriculturist of the 18th-century Russian Empire.
1741 Pierre Choderlos de Laclos a French novelist, official and army general, best known for writing the epistolary novel Les Liaisons Dangereuses.
1753 Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès a French lawyer and statesman during the French Revolution and the First Empire, best remembered as the author of the Napoleonic Code, which still forms the basis of French civil law.
1770 Thomas Phillips a leading English portrait and subject painter. He painted many of the great men of the day including scientists, artists, writers, poets and explorers
1774 Pierre David de Colbert-Chabanais a general of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars, noted for his unbreakable loyalty to Napoleon I.
1774 Amandus Gottfried Adolf Müllner a German critic and dramatic poet.
1775 Dawson Turner an English banker, botanist and antiquary.
1775 John Vanderlyn an American neoclassicist painter.
1777 Heinrich von Kleist a German poet, dramatist, novelist and short story writer. The Kleist Prize, a prestigious prize for German literature, is named after him
1785 Thomas Love Peacock an English novelist, poet, and official of the East India Company. He was a close friend of Percy Bysshe Shelley and they influenced each other's work. Peacock wrote satirical novels, each with the same basic setting — characters at a table discussing and criticising the philosophical opinions of the day
1794 Bede Polding (bishop) the first Roman Catholic Bishop and then Archbishop of Sydney, Australia.
1795 Zlata of Maglen an 18th-century Eastern Orthodox saint and new martyr.
1799 Christian Friedrich Schönbein best known for inventing the fuel cell and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.
1801 Justo José de Urquiza an Argentine general and politician. He was president of the Argentine Confederation from 1854 to 1860
1802 Ludovic Vitet a French dramatist and politician.
1804 Mongkut the fourth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1851–1868. He was one of the most revered monarchs of the country
1805 Mariano Ospina Rodríguez a Colombian politician, journalist and lawyer, founder of the Colombian Conservative Party and later President of Colombia between 1857 and 1861 during the Granadine Confederation.
1816 Samuel Constantinus Snellen van Vollenhoven a Dutch entomologist. He is not to be confused with Pieter Cornelius Tobias Snellen another entomologist from Rotterdam
1818 Elizabeth F. Ellet an American writer, historian and poet. She was the first writer to record the lives of women who contributed to the American Revolutionary War
1824 John Noble Goodwin a United States attorney and politician who served as the first Governor of Arizona Territory. He was also a Congressman from Maine and served as Arizona Territory's delegate to the United States House of Representatives
1824 Juan Valera y Alcalá-Galiano a Spanish realist author, diplomat, and politician.