October 18 events in history

320 Pappus of Alexandria, Greek philosopher, observes an eclipse of the Sun and writes a commentary on The Great Astronomer (Almagest)
614 King Chlothar II promulgates the Edict of Paris (Edictum Chlotacharii), a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that defend the rights of the Frankish nobles while it excludes Jews from all civil employment in the Frankish Kingdom
629 Dagobert I is crowned King of the Franks
1009 The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church's foundations down to bedrock
1016 The Danes defeat the Saxons in the Battle of Assandun
1081 The Normans defeat the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Dyrrhachium
1210 Pope Innocent III excommunicates Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor
1356 Basel earthquake, the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroys the town of Basel, Switzerland
1386 Opening of the University of Heidelberg
1540 Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto's forces destroy the fortified town of Mabila in present-day Alabama, killing Tuskaloosa
1599 Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the Army of Andrew Báthory in the Battle of Şelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanian people
1648 Boston Shoemakers form first American labor organization
1748 Signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession
1775 African-American poet Phillis Wheatley is freed from slavery
1775 American Revolutionary War: The Burning of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine) prompts the Continental Congress to establish the Continental Navy
1779 American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah is lifted
1797 Treaty of Campo Formio is signed between France and Austria
1851 Herman Melville's Moby-Dick is first published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London
1860 The Second Opium War finally ends at the Convention of Peking with the ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin, an unequal treaty
1867 United States takes possession of Alaska after purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million. Celebrated annually in the state as Alaska Day
1898 The United States takes possession of Puerto Rico from Spain
1912 First Balkan War: King Peter I of Serbia issues a declaration "To the Serbian People", as his country joins the war
1914 The Schoenstatt Movement is founded in Germany
1921 The Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is formed as part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1922 The British Broadcasting Company (later Corporation) is founded by a consortium, to establish a nationwide network of radio transmitters to provide a national broadcasting service
1929 The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council overrules the Supreme Court of Canada in Edwards v. Canada when it declares that women are considered "Persons" under Canadian law
1944 World War II: Soviet Union begins the liberation of Czechoslovakia from Nazi Germany
1945 The USSR's nuclear program receives plans for the United States plutonium bomb from Klaus Fuchs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory
1945 A group of the Venezuelan Armed Forces, led by Mario Vargas, Marcos Pérez Jiménez and Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, stages a coup d'état against president Isaías Medina Angarita, who is overthrown by the end of the day
1945 Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón marries actress Eva "Evita" Duarte
1954 Texas Instruments announces the first Transistor radio
1964 The 1964-1965 New York World's Fair closes for its first season after a six-month run
1967 The Soviet probe Venera 4 reaches Venus and becomes the first spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet
1968 The U.S. Olympic Committee suspends Tommie Smith and John Carlos for giving a "Black Power" salute during a victory ceremony at the Mexico City games
1977 German Autumn: a set of events revolving around the kidnapping of Hanns Martin Schleyer and the hijacking of a Lufthansa flight by the Red Army Faction (RAF) comes to an end when Schleyer is murdered and various RAF members allegedly commit suicide
1989 Peaceful Revolution: Erich Honecker resigns as General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
1991 The Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopts a declaration of independence from the Soviet Union
2003 Bolivian gas conflict: Bolivian President Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, is forced to resign and leave Bolivia
2004 Myanmar prime minister Khin Nyunt is ousted and placed under house arrest by the State Peace and Development Council on charges of corruption
2007 Karachi bombing: A suicide attack on a motorcade carrying former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto kills 139 and wounds 450 more. Bhutto herself is uninjured