Born on October 19

1183 Antipope Callixtus III Antipope from September 1168 to 29 August 1178.
1276 Prince Hisaaki the eighth shogun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan.
1433 Marsilio Ficino an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance. He was also an astrologer and a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day, and became the first translator of Plato's complete extant works into Latin. His Florentine Academy, an attempt to revive Plato's school, had enormous influence on the direction and tenor of the Italian Renaissance and the development of European philosophy
1469 John Fisher an English Catholic Cardinal-Priest, Bishop, and theologian. He was a man of learning, associated with the intellectuals and political leaders of his day, and eventually became Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
1507 Viglius the name taken by Wigle Aytta van Zwichem, a Dutch statesman and jurist, a Frisian by birth.
1562 George Abbot (bishop) an English divine who was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1611 to 1633. He also served as the fourth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, from 1612 to 1633
1582 Dmitry of Uglich a Russian tsarevich famously impersonated by a series of pretenders after the death of his father Ivan the Terrible.
1605 Thomas Browne an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric. Browne's writings display a deep curiosity towards the natural world, influenced by the scientific revolution of Baconian enquiry, while his Christian faith exuded tolerance and goodwill towards humanity in an often intolerant era
1609 Gerrard Winstanley an English Protestant religious reformer and political activist during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. Winstanley was one of the founders of the English group known as the True Levellers or Diggers for their beliefs, and for their actions. The group occupied public lands that had been privatised by enclosures and dug them over, pulling down hedges and filling in ditches, to plant crops. True Levellers was the name they used to describe themselves, whereas the term Diggers was coined by contemporaries
1610 James Butler 1st Duke of Ormonde an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier, known as Earl of Ormond from 1634 to 1642 and Marquess of Ormonde from 1642 to 1661. Following the failure of the senior line of the Butler family, he was the second of the Kilcash branch to inherit the earldom. His friend, the 1st Earl of Strafford, caused him to be appointed the commander of the Cavalier forces in Ireland. From 1641 to 1647, he led the fighting against the Irish Catholic Confederation. From 1649 to 1650 he was the leading commander of the Royalist forces in the fight against the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. In the 1650s he lived in exile in Europe with King Charles II of England. Upon the restoration of Charles to the throne in 1660, Ormonde became a major figure in English and Irish politics, holding many high government offices
1625 Pierre Nicole one of the most distinguished of the French Jansenists.
1658 Adolphus Frederick II Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz the first Duke of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz, reigning from 1701 until his death. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
1662 William Ernest Duke of Saxe-Weimar a duke of Saxe-Weimar.
1669 Count Wirich Philipp von Daun an Austrian Field Marshal in the War of Spanish Succession, and father of the better known Leopold Josef Graf Daun. In 1710 he was created Prince of Teano
1680 John Abernethy (minister) an Irish Presbyterian church leader, the grandfather of the surgeon John Abernethy.
1688 William Cheselden an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession.
1718 Victor-François 2nd duc de Broglie a French aristocrat and soldier and a marshal of France. He served with his father, François-Marie, 1st duc de Broglie, at Parma and Guastalla, and in 1734 obtained a colonelcy
1720 John Woolman a North American merchant, tailor, journalist, and itinerant Quaker preacher, and an early abolitionist in the colonial era. Based in Mount Holly, New Jersey, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he traveled through frontier areas of British North America to preach Quaker beliefs, and advocate against slavery and the slave trade, cruelty to animals, economic injustices and oppression, and conscription. From 1755 during the French and Indian War, he urged tax resistance to deny support to the military. In 1772, Woolman traveled to England, where he urged Quakers to support abolition of slavery
1721 Joseph de Guignes a French orientalist, sinologist and Turkologist born at Pontoise, the son of Jean Louis de Guignes and Françoise Vaillant. He died at Paris
1726 Princess Louise of Denmark (1726–1756) a Danish princess, the daughter of King Christian VI of Denmark and his wife Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. Following her marriage to Ernest Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, she became Duchess of Saxe-Hildburghausen
1748 Thomas Graham 1st Baron Lynedoch a Scottish aristocrat, politician and British Army officer. After his education at Oxford, he inherited a substantial estate in Scotland was married and settled down to a quiet career as a landowning gentleman. However, with the death of his wife, when he was aged 42, he immersed himself in a military career, during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars
1764 Victor-Joseph Étienne de Jouy called de Jouy , French dramatist, who abandoned an early military career for a successful literary one.
1767 Henri-François Riesener a French portrait painter and miniaturist. He was the son of German-born cabinet-maker Jean-Henri Riesener and the father of the Romantic painter Léon Riesener
1781 Juan Pedro Aguirre an Argentine revolutionary and politician.
1784 Leigh Hunt an English critic, essayist, poet, and writer.
1784 Theophilos Kairis a Greek priest, philosopher and revolutionary. He was born in Andros, Cyclades, Ottoman Greece, as a son of a distinguished family
1784 John McLoughlin a Chief Factor and Superintendent of the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver from 1824 to 1845. He was later known as the "Father of Oregon" for his role in assisting the American cause in the Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest. In the late 1840s his general store in Oregon City was famous as the last stop on the Oregon Trail
1787 Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov a Russian diplomat, the natural son of Count Fyodor Grigoryevich. He was born in Moscow and took part in all the Napoleonic Wars from 1805 to the capture of Paris. For his services as commander of the cavalry regiment of the Life Guards on the occasion of the rebellion of 1825 he was created a count, and in the Turkish War of 1828–1829 rose to the rank of lieutenant-general
1794 Temple Chevallier a British clergyman, astronomer, and mathematician. Between 1847 and 1849, he made important observations regarding sunspots. Chevallier has been called "a remarkable Victorian polymath". Not only did he write many papers on astronomy and physics, he also published a translation of the Apostolic Fathers that went into a second edition, and translated the works of Clement of Alexandria, Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch
1795 Arthur Morin a French physicist. He conducted experiments in mechanics and invented the Morin dynamometer
1795 Pedro Blanco Soto President of Bolivia for just a week cut short by his assassination in a convent called La Recoletta in Sucre on New Years Day 1829. He was shot on the roof above a stairwell while attempting to escape. A small plaque now marks the spot in the Museo de la Recoletta. He was well known for his pro Peru stance and this is generally the reason attributed to his assassination
1800 Pedro Alcántara Herrán a Colombian general and statesman who served as President of the Republic of the New Granada between 1841 and 1845. As a general he served in the wars of independence of the New Granada and of Peru
1810 Jules Malou a Belgian statesman, a leader of the clerical party.
1811 Friedrich Wieseler a German classical archaeologist and philologist.
1814 Theodoros Vryzakis a major Greek painter of the 19th century.
1817 Tom Taylor an English dramatist, critic, biographer, public servant, and editor of Punch magazine. He wrote about 100 plays during his career, including Our American Cousin , famous as the play which was being performed in the presence of American President Abraham Lincoln when he was assassinated in 1865
1820 John Stoughton Dennis a Canadian surveyor, militia officer, and civil servant.
1826 Ralph Tollemache a British clergyman in the Church of England. He is best known for the unusual and increasingly eccentric names that he chose for his numerous children
1826 Manuel Joël a German Jewish philosopher and preacher.
1828 Adolfo Fumagalli a 19th-century Italian virtuoso pianist and composer, known today primarily for his virtuosic compositions for the left hand alone.
1829 John of Kronstadt a Russian Orthodox Christian presbyter and a member of the synod of the Russian Orthodox Church. He was a striking, unconventional personality, deeply pious and immensely energetic. He was one of the most internationally famous and beloved Orthodox Christian leaders of his time
1833 Adam Lindsay Gordon an Australian poet, jockey and politician.
1834 Ferdynand Radziwiłł a Polish nobleman and Polish-German politician. He was the son of Ferdynand Radziwiłł and Countess Leontyna von Clary und Aldringen. Through his paternal grandmother, Princess Louise of Prussia, he was a cousin of the German Emperors. At the time Poland was partitioned, he lived in the German Empire, where he was a member of the German parliament from 1874 to 1919. He was known as an important leader of the Polish minority and opponent of the Germanization and Kulturkampf policies. After Poland regained independence in 1918, he became a Polish citizen and a member of the Polish parliament
1834 Francis C. Barlow a lawyer, politician, and Union General during the American Civil War.
1835 Manuel Quintana the President of Argentina from 12 October 1904 to 12 March 1906. He died in office
1839 Jane Morris an English artists' model who embodied the Pre-Raphaelite ideal of beauty. She was a model and muse to the artists William Morris, whom she married, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti
1850 Annie Smith Peck an American mountaineer. She lectured extensively for many years throughout the United States, and wrote four books encouraging travel and exploration
1851 Empress Myeongseong the first official wife of King Gojong, the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. In 1902, she received the posthumous name Hyoja Wonsŏng Jŏnghwa Hapchŏn Honggong Sŏngdŏk Myŏngsŏng Taehwanghu , often abbreviated as Myŏngsŏng Hwanghu , meaning Empress Myeongseong
1854 Serhii Vasylkivsky one of the most prolific Ukrainian artists of the pre-revolutionary period and an expert on Ukrainian ornamentation and folk art.
1855 Princess Pauline of Waldeck and Pyrmont a member of the House of Waldeck and Pyrmont and a Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Through her marriage to Alexis, Prince of Bentheim and Steinfurt, Pauline was also a member of the Princely House of Bentheim and Steinfurt and Princess consort of Bentheim and Steinfurt from 28 September 1890 to 21 January 1919