Died on October 19

993 Conrad I of Burgundy the king of Burgundy from 937 until his death. He was the son of King Rudolph II, the first king of a united Burgundy and Bertha of Swabia. Conrad is sometimes numbered Conrad I as king of Burgundy and as Conrad III of Provence, since he inherited Provence in 948
1216 John King of England King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. Following the battle of Bouvines, John lost the duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, which resulted in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributed to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered to be an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom
1335 Elizabeth Richeza of Poland a Polish princess member of the House of Piast and by her two marriages Queen consort of Bohemia, Poland and Duchess consort of Austria and Styria.
1354 Yusuf I Sultan of Granada the seventh Nasrid ruler of the Moorish Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula. He was Sultan between 1333 and 1354
1432 John de Mowbray 2nd Duke of Norfolk an English nobleman.
1531 Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo 2nd Duke of Alba a Spanish nobleman, military leader and politician.
1547 Perino del Vaga an Italian painter of the Late Renaissance/Mannerism.
1553 Bonifazio Veronese an Italian painter. He was born as Bonifazio de' Pitati in Verona. He reputedly trained under Palma il Vecchio. Went on to run a large workshop in Venice. His paintings include Christ Giving a Sermon, Dives and Lazarus, The Finding of Moses, and Woman Holding Two Tablets, his style being influenced by that of Giorgione and Titian. Many cassoni and furniture decorations are attributed to him
1576 George Gordon 5th Earl of Huntly Lord Chancellor of Scotland and major conspirator of his time.
1585 Johannes Crato von Krafftheim a German humanist and court physician to three Holy Roman emperors.
1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl of Arundel an English nobleman. He was canonised by Pope Paul VI in 1970, as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. He is variously numbered as 1st, 20th or 13th Earl of Arundel
1597 Ashikaga Yoshiaki the 15th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate in Japan who reigned from 1568 to 1573. His father, Ashikaga Yoshiharu was the twelfth shogun, and his brother, Ashikaga Yoshiteru was the thirteenth shogun
1608 Martin Delrio a Jesuit theologian of Spanish descent. He was born in Antwerp, and studied at numerous institutions, receiving the degree of Doctor of Law from Salamanca in 1574. After a period of political service, he became a Jesuit in 1580. He taught theology for several years in Leuven, Mainz, and Douai; all intellectual centres for the Catholic Reformation
1609 Jacobus Arminius the Latinized name of the Dutch theologian Jakob Hermanszoon from the Protestant Reformation period, served from 1603 as professor in theology at the University of Leiden. He wrote many books and treatises on theology, and his views became the basis of Arminianism and the Dutch Remonstrant movement
1636 Marcin Kazanowski a noble , magnate, castellan of Halice from 1622, voivode of Podole Voivodeship from 1632 and Field Crown Hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1633.
1646 Jean de Lalande a Jesuit missionary at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons and one of the eight North American Martyrs.
1682 Thomas Browne an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric. Browne's writings display a deep curiosity towards the natural world, influenced by the scientific revolution of Baconian enquiry, while his Christian faith exuded tolerance and goodwill towards humanity in an often intolerant era
1710 Suzanne Henriette of Lorraine a member of the House of Lorraine and was the Duchess of Mantua by marriage. Her husband Ferdinand Charles Gonzaga was the last Gonzaga Duke of Mantua
1723 Godfrey Kneller the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George His major works include The Chinese Convert ; a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "Kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
1739 Leonty Magnitsky a Russian mathematician and educator.
1745 Jonathan Swift an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer , poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
1789 Sir Francis Samuel Drake 1st Baronet an officer of the Royal Navy. He served during the Seven Years' War and the American War of Independence, rising to the rank of Rear-admiral of the Red
1790 Lyman Hall a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Georgia. Hall County is named after him
1796 Michel de Beaupuy a French general of the Revolution.
1809 Jean-Henri Gourgaud born in Marseille, the son of Pierre-Antoine Gourgaud, the director of military hospitals there and also an actor.
1810 Jonas Carlsson Dryander a Swedish botanist.
1810 Jean-Georges Noverre generally considered the creator of ballet d'action, a precursor of the narrative ballets of the 19th century. His birthday is now observed as International Dance Day
1813 Józef Poniatowski a Polish leader, general, minister of war and army chief, acting Prime Minister of Poland and a Marshal of the French Empire.
1814 Mercy Otis Warren a political writer and propagandist of the American Revolution. In the eighteenth century, topics such as politics and war were thought to be the province of men. Few men and fewer women had the education or training to write about these subjects. Warren was an exception. During the years before the American Revolution, Warren published poems and plays that attacked royal authority in Massachusetts and urged colonists to resist British infringements on colonial rights and liberties
1815 Paolo Mascagni an Italian physician, known for his study of human anatomy, in particular for the first complete description of the lymphatic system.
1842 Aleksey Koltsov a Russian poet who has been called a Russian Burns. His poems, frequently placed in the mouth of women, stylize peasant-life songs and idealize agricultural labour. Koltsov earnestly collected Russian folklore which strongly influenced his poetry. He celebrated simple peasants, their work and their lives. Many of his poems were put to music by such composers as Dargomyzhsky, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov
1851 Marie Thérèse of France the eldest child of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.
1853 Louis Duport a French ballet dancer, ballet composer and ballet master.
1853 Juana Maria a Native American woman who was the last surviving member of her tribe, the Nicoleño. She lived alone on San Nicolas Island off the coast of California from 1835 until her discovery in 1853. Scott O'Dell's award-winning children's novel Island of the Blue Dolphins was inspired by her story
1856 Said bin Sultan Sultan of Muscat and Oman Sultan of Muscat and Oman from March 1807 to 4 June 1856.
1856 William Sprague III a politician and industrialist from the U.S. state of Rhode Island, serving as the 14th Governor, a U.S. Representative and a U.S. Senator. He was the uncle of William Sprague IV, also a Governor and Senator from Rhode Island
1860 Ang Duong a king of Cambodia. His official title is Preah Raja Samdach Preah Hariraksha Rama Suriya Maha Isvara Adipati
1870 Imre Frivaldszky a Hungarian botanist and entomologist.
1875 Charles Wheatstone an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope , and the Playfair cipher. However, Wheatstone is best known for his contributions in the development of the Wheatstone bridge, originally invented by Samuel Hunter Christie, which is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance, and as a major figure in the development of telegraphy
1878 Irénée-Jules Bienaymé a French statistician. He built on the legacy of Laplace generalizing his least squares method. He contributed to the fields and probability, and statistics and to their application to finance, demography and social sciences. In particular, he formulated the Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality concerning the law of large numbers and the Bienaymé formula for the variance of a sum of uncorrelated random variables
1880 Hermann Schmid an Austrian writer and theatre director.
1885 Willem Jozef Andreas Jonckbloet a Dutch historian, best known for work on medieval poetry.
1889 Luís I of Portugal the King of Portugal and the Algarves between 1861 and 1889. He was the second son of Maria II and Ferdinand II and was created Duke of Porto and Viseu
1890 Émile Léonard Mathieu a French mathematician. He is most famous for his work in group theory and mathematical physics. He has given his name to the Mathieu functions, Mathieu groups and Mathieu transformation. He authored a treatise of mathematical physics in 6 volumes. Volume 1 is an exposition of the techniques to solve the differential equations of mathematical physics, and contains an account of the applications of Mathieu functions to electrostatics. Volume 2 deals with capillarity. Volumes 3 and 4 with electrostatics and magnetostatics. Volume 5 deals with electrodynamics, and volume 6 with elasticity. The asteroid 27947 Emilemathieu was named in his honour
1893 Lucy Stone a prominent American orator, abolitionist, and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting rights for women. In 1847, Stone became the first woman from Massachusetts to earn a college degree. She spoke out for women's rights and against slavery at a time when women were discouraged and prevented from public speaking. Stone was known for using her maiden name after marriage, as the custom was for women to take their husband's surname
1894 James Darmesteter a French author, orientalist, and antiquarian.
1896 William Adams Richardson an American judge and politician. Richardson served as Secretary of Treasury, appointed by President Ulysses Grant, serving from 1873 to 1874. During Sec. Richardson's tenure the Panic of 1873 swept the nation and caused a depression that lasted five years. Richardson responded by controversially releasing $26,000,000 in paper money reserves in an inflationist measure to help alleviate the effects of the general panic. There was debate whether Richardson had the authority to do so, however, Congress had not passed a law to forbid such an action. Richardson secured the $15,000,000 award from the Alabama Claims through the retirement of United States bonds held in Europe. This was to ensure that no gold had to be transferred overseas by ship. Richardson's tenure was marred by the Sanborn Incident, where profiteering took place over the collection of taxes by John Sanborn. As pressure mounted for Richardson's resignation, Richardson resigned, while President Grant quietly appointed him Justice to the United States Court of Claims, where he served on the bench for the rest of his life
1896 Emmy Rappe a Swedish nurse and principal for a nursing school. She was one of the pioneers and founders of the Swedish nursing education. She was the first trained professional nurse and the first principal of the first nursing education in her country
1897 Berthold Englisch a leading Austrian chess master.
1897 George Pullman an American engineer and industrialist. He designed and manufactured the Pullman sleeping car and founded a company town, Pullman, for the workers who manufactured His Pullman Company also hired African-American men to staff the Pullman cars, who became known and widely respected as Pullman porters, providing elite service