October 19 events in history

439 The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa
1216 King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry
1386 The Universität Heidelberg held its first lecture, making it the oldest German university
1466 The Thirteen Years' War ends with the Second Treaty of Thorn
1469 Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain
1512 Martin Luther becomes a doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia)
1649 New Ross town, County Wexford, Ireland, surrenders to Oliver Cromwell
1781 At Yorktown, Virginia, representatives of British commander Lord Cornwallis handed over Cornwallis' sword and formally surrendered to George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau
1789 Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States
1805 Napoleonic Wars: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to the Grande Armée of Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Ulm. 30,000 prisoners are captured and 10,000 casualties inflicted on the losers
1812 Napoleon Bonaparte retreats from Moscow
1813 The Battle of Leipzig concludes, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats
1822 In Parnaíba; Simplício Dias da Silva, João Cândido de Deus e Silva and Domingos Dias declare the independent state of Piauí
1864 Battle of Cedar Creek – Union Army under Philip Sheridan destroys a Confederate Army under Jubal Early
1864 St. Albans Raid – Confederate raiders launch an attack on Saint Albans, Vermont from Canada
1866 Venice - Annexion of Veneto and Mantua to Italy - At Hotel Europa, Austria hands over Veneto to France, which hands it immediately over to Italy
1900 Max Planck, in his house at Grunewald, on the outskirts of Berlin, discovers the law of black-body radiation (Planck's law)
1904 Polytechnic University of the Philippines founded as Manila Business School through the superintendence of the American C.A. O'Reilley
1912 Italy takes possession of Tripoli, Libya from the Ottoman Empire
1914 The First Battle of Ypres begins
1917 The Love Field in Dallas is opened
1921 Portuguese Prime Minister António Granjo and other politicians are murdered in a Lisbon coup
1922 British Conservative MPs meeting at the Carlton Club vote to break off the Coalition Government with David Lloyd George of the Liberal Party
1933 Germany withdraws from the League of Nations
1935 The League of Nations places economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia
1943 Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University
1944 United States forces land in the Philippines
1950 The People's Liberation Army takes control of the town of Chamdo; this is sometimes called the "Invasion of Tibet"
1950 The People's Republic of China joins the Korean War by sending thousands of troops across the Yalu River to fight United Nations forces
1950 Iran becomes the first country to accept technical assistance from the United States under the Point Four Program
1954 First ascent of Cho Oyu
1956 The Soviet Union and Japan sign a Joint Declaration, officially ending the state of war between the two countries that had existed since August 1945
1960 Cold War: The United States government imposes a near-total trade embargo against Cuba, which remains in effect today
1969 The first Prime Minister of Tunisia in twelve years, Bahi Ladgham, is appointed by President Habib Bourguiba
1973 President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court decision that he turn over the Watergate tapes
1974 Niue becomes a self-governing colony of New Zealand
1976 Battle of Aishiya in Lebanon
1984 Roman Catholic priest from Poland, Jerzy Popiełuszko, associated with the Solidarity union, was murdered by three agents of the Polish communist internal intelligence agency
1986 Samora Machel, President of Mozambique and a prominent leader of FRELIMO, and 33 others die when their Tupolev Tu-134 plane crashes into the Lebombo Mountains
1987 The United States Navy conducts Operation Nimble Archer, an attack on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf
1987 Black Monday - the Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points
1988 The British government imposes a broadcasting ban on television and radio interviews with members of Sinn Féin and eleven Irish republican and Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups
1989 The convictions of the Guildford Four are quashed by the Court of Appeal of England and Wales, after they had spent 15 years in prison
2001 SIEV X, an Indonesian fishing boat en route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, sinks in international waters with the loss of 353 people
2003 Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II
2004 Care International aid worker Margaret Hassan is kidnapped in Iraq
2005 Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity
2005 Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with a minimum pressure of 882 mb
2007 Philippines: A bomb explosion rocked Glorietta 2, a shopping mall in Makati. The blast killed 11 and injured more than 100 people
2012 Big Tex, a 52-foot statue and cultural icon in Dallas is destroyed by fire during the final weekend of the 2012 State Fair of Texas