Born on October 20

1463 Alessandro Achillini an Italian philosopher and physician.
1475 Giovanni di Bernardo Rucellai an Italian humanist, poet, dramatist and man of letters in Renaissance Florence, in Tuscany, Italy. A member of a wealthy family of wool merchants and one of the richest men in Florence, he was cousin to Pope Leo X and linked by marriage to the powerful Strozzi and de' Medici families. He was born in Florence, and died in Rome. He was the son of Bernardo Rucellai and grandson of Giovanni di Paolo Rucellai. He is now remembered mostly for his poem Le Api, "The Bees"
1480 Vannoccio Biringuccio an Italian metallurgist. He is best known for his manual on metalworking, De la pirotechnia, published posthumously in 1540. Biringuccio is considered by some as the father of the foundry industry as De la pirotechnia is the first printed account of proper foundry practice. It also gives details of mining practice, the extraction and refining of numerous metals, alloys such as brass, and compounds used in foundries and explosives. It preceded the printing of De re metallica by Georgius Agricola by 14 years
1496 Claude Duke of Guise a French aristocrat and general. He became the first Duke of Guise in 1528
1554 Bálint Balassi a Hungarian Renaissance lyric poet. He wrote mostly in Hungarian, but was also proficient in further eight languages: Latin, Italian, German, Polish, Turkish, Slovak, Croatian and Romanian. He is the founder of modern Hungarian lyric and erotic poetry
1586 Luke Foxe an English explorer, born in Kingston-upon-Hull, Yorkshire, who searched for the Northwest Passage across North America. In 1631, he sailed much of the western Hudson Bay before concluding no such passage was possible. Foxe Basin, Foxe Channel and Foxe Peninsula were named after him
1616 Thomas Bartholin a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian. He is best known for his work in the discovery of the lymphatic system in humans and for his advancements of the theory of refrigeration anesthesia, being the first to describe it scientifically
1620 Aelbert Cuyp one of the leading Dutch landscape painters of the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century. The most famous of a family of painters, the pupil of his father Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp , he is especially known for his large views of the Dutch countryside in early morning or late afternoon light
1632 Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro 10th Count of Lemos a Spanish nobleman who was Viceroy of Peru from 1667 until his death.
1632 Christopher Wren one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710
1640 Pieter Cornelisz van Slingelandt known as one of Leiden's fijnschilders.
1640 Gérard Edelinck a copper-plate engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin, who worked in Paris from 1666 and became a naturalized French citizen in 1675.
1660 Robert Bertie 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven a British statesman and nobleman.
1670 Abraham Davel a soldier and patriot of Vaud.
1677 Stanisław I King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire.
1679 Samuel von Cocceji a German official from the Electorate of the Palatinate who served Brandenburg-Prussia. He was the son of Heinrich von Cocceji
1691 Tsarevna Catherine Ivanovna of Russia a daughter of Tsar Ivan V and Praskovia Saltykova, eldest sister of Empress Anna of Russia and niece of Peter the Great. By her marriage, she was a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1700 Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans the Duchess of Modena and Reggio by marriage. She was the third daughter of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, and of his wife, Françoise-Marie de Bourbon. She was born a princesse du sang. When a married woman, she had ten children
1711 Timothy Ruggles an American military leader, jurist and politician. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765
1719 Gottfried Achenwall a German philosopher, historian, economist, jurist and statistician. He is counted among the inventors of statistics
1733 Sugita Genpaku a Japanese scholar known for his translation of Kaitai Shinsho.
1733 Adam Naruszewicz a Polish nobleman from an impoverished aristocratic family, poet, historian, dramatist, translator, publicist, Jesuit and titular Bishop of Smolensk and bishop of Łuck.
1740 Isabelle de Charrière a Dutch writer of the Enlightenment who lived the latter half of her life in Switzerland. She is now best known for her letters and novels, although she also wrote pamphlets, music and plays. She took a keen interest in the society and politics of her age, and her work around the time of the French Revolution is regarded as being of particular interest
1747 François-Marie marquis de Barthélemy a French politician and diplomat, active at the time of the French Revolution.
1752 Fabian Gottlieb von Osten-Sacken a Baltic-German Field Marshal who led the Russian army against the Duchy of Warsaw and later governed Paris during the city's brief occupation by the anti-French coalition.
1759 Chauncey Goodrich an American lawyer and politician from Connecticut who represented that state in the United States Congress as both a senator and a representative.
1760 Alexandre-Théodore-Victor comte de Lameth a French soldier and politician.
1770 Antoine Jay a French writer, journalist, historian and politician.
1770 Janko Drašković a Croatian national reformer, politician and poet. He was a member of the Drašković family, one of the oldest Croatian noble families
1772 Johann Heinrich Ferdinand von Autenrieth a German physician born in Stuttgart.
1780 Pauline Bonaparte the first sovereign Duchess of Guastalla, an imperial French Princess and the Princess consort of Sulmona and Rossano. She was the sixth child of Letizia Ramolino and Carlo Buonaparte, Corsica's representative to the court of King Louis XVI of France. Her elder brother, Napoleon, was the first Emperor of the French. She married Charles Leclerc, a French general, a union ended by his death in 1802. Later, she married Camillo Borghese, 6th Prince of Sulmona. Her only child, Dermide Leclerc, born from her first marriage, died in infancy. She was the only Bonaparte sibling to visit Napoleon on his principality, Elba
1784 Henry John Temple 3rd Viscount Palmerston a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century. Popularly nicknamed "Pam" and "The Mongoose", he was in government office almost continuously from 1807 until his death in 1865, beginning his parliamentary career as a Tory and concluding it as a Liberal
1785 George Ormerod an English antiquary and historian. Amongst his writings was a major account of the history of Cheshire, a county in northwestern England
1792 María Josefa Lastiri the wife of General Francisco Morazán and the First Lady of the Federal Republic of Central America, Honduras, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. She was born on October 20, 1792 to her parents Juan Miguel Lastiri and Margarita Lozano y Borjas in Tegucigalpa. Honduras. She first married landowner Esteban Travieso in 1818, with whom she had 4 children but he later died in 1825. Upon his death, she inherited a fortune. On December 30, 1825 she married Francisco Morazán in Comayagua, with whom she only had one daughter, Adela Morazán Lastiri
1792 Colin Campbell 1st Baron Clyde a British Army officer. After serving in the Peninsular War and the War of 1812, he commanded the 98th Regiment of Foot during the First Opium War and then commanded a brigade during the Second Anglo-Sikh War. He went on to command the Highland Brigade at the Battle of Alma and with his "thin red line of Highlanders" he repulsed the Russian attack on Balaclava during the Crimean War. At an early stage of the Indian Mutiny, he became Commander-in-Chief, India and, in that role, he relieved and then evacuated Lucknow and, after attacking and decisively defeating Tatya Tope at the Second Battle of Cawnpore, captured Lucknow again
1792 Anton Bernhard Fürstenau a German flutist and composer. He was the most famous virtuoso in Germany on his instrument and the most important Romantic flutist of the first half of the nineteenth century. His son Moritz Fürstenau , whom he later sent to study with Theobald Boehm in Munich, was one of his numerous students. Skeptical as for the technical advancements of the flute, he remained faithful to the nine key flute until his death
1799 Heinrich Christian Macklot a German naturalist.
1801 Melchior Berri a well-known Swiss architect.
1806 George Newbold Lawrence an American businessman and amateur ornithologist.
1808 Karl Andree a German geographer.
1809 Mihály Horváth a Hungarian Roman Catholic bishop, historian, and politician.
1814 Johan Georg Schwartze a Dutch painter. Schwartze is also the father of painter Therese Schwartze. He was born and died in Amsterdam. He was a painter of portraits and historical themes
1819 Daniel Sickles an American politician, soldier, and diplomat.
1819 Karol Mikuli an Armenian pianist, composer, conductor and teacher. His students included Moriz Rosenthal, Raoul Koczalski, Aleksander Michałowski, Jaroslaw Zieliński and Kornelia Parnas. See: List of music students by teacher#Karol Mikuli
1819 Báb the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith. He was a merchant from Shiraz, Persia who, at the age of twenty-four , claimed to be an inspired interpreter of the Qur'an within the Shaykhi school of Twelver Shi'ism. He made bolder claims as time passed, and in 1847, during a trial in Tabriz, asserted a claim to be the Shi'i 'promised one' or Qá'im. After his declaration he took the title of Báb meaning "Gate" or "Door". He composed numerous letters and books in which he stated his messianic claims and defined his teachings, which constituted a new sharí'ah or religious law. His movement eventually acquired thousands of supporters, was opposed by Iran's Shi'i clergy, and was suppressed by the Iranian government, leading to the persecution and killing of between two and three thousand of his followers, called Bábís. In 1850, at the age of thirty, the Báb was shot by a firing squad in Tabriz
1821 Michel Carré a prolific French librettist.
1822 Thomas Hughes an English lawyer, judge and author. He is most famous for his novel Tom Brown's School Days , a semi-autobiographical work set at Rugby School, which Hughes had attended. It had a lesser-known sequel, Tom Brown at Oxford
1824 Alexander Druzhinin a Russian writer, translator, and magazine editor.
1828 Heinrich Rehm a German mycologist and lichenologist.
1829 Surendra of Nepal King of Nepal between 1847 and 1881. He became king after Prime Minister Jang Bahadur Rana forced the abdication of Surendra's father, Rajendra Bikram Shah. Surendra wielded little real power, with Jang Bahadur Rana effectively ruling the country during Surendra's reign