Died on October 20

460 Aelia Eudocia the wife of Theodosius II, and a prominent historical figure in understanding the rise of Christianity during the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. Eudocia lived in a world where Greek paganism and Christianity were existing side by side with both pagans and unorthodox Christians being persecuted. Although Eudocia's work has been mostly ignored by modern scholars, her poetry and literary work are great examples of how her Christian faith and Greek upbringing were intertwined, exemplifying a legacy that the Byzantine Empire left behind on the Christian world
713 Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin the fourth Shiite Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali, the Prophet’s son-in-law. He survived the Battle of Karbala and was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus. Eventually, however, he was allowed to return to Medina where he led a secluded life with only a few intimate companions. Imam Sajjad's life and statements were entirely devoted to asceticism and religious teachings mostly in the form of invocations and supplications. His famous supplications are well known as Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
1122 Ralph d'Escures a medieval Abbot of Séez, Bishop of Rochester and then Archbishop of Canterbury. He studied at the school at the Abbey of Bec. In 1079 he entered the abbey of St Martin at Séez, and became abbot there in 1091. He was a friend of both Anselm of Canterbury and Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, whose see, or bishopric, he took over on Gundulf's death
1139 Henry X Duke of Bavaria the Duke of Bavaria , Duke of Saxony , and Margrave of Tuscany.
1187 Pope Urban III born Uberto Crivelli, reigned from 25 November 1185 to his death in 1187.
1351 Musō Soseki a Rinzai Zen Buddhist monk and teacher, and a calligraphist, poet and garden designer. The most famous monk of his time, he is also known as Musō Kokushi , a honorific conferred to him by Emperor Go-Daigo. His mother was the daughter of Hōjō Masamura , seventh Shikken of the Kamakura shogunate
1438 Jacopo della Quercia an Italian sculptor of the Italian Renaissance, a contemporary of Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Donatello. He is considered a precursor of Michelangelo
1439 St. Ambrose Traversari O.S.B. Cam., also referred to as Ambrose of Camaldoli , was an Italian monk and theologian, who was a prime supporter of the papal cause in the 15th century. He is honored as a saint by the Camaldolese Order
1498 Koca Davud Pasha an Albanian general and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1482 to 1497 during the reign of Bayezid He became a damat to the Ottoman dynasty by marrying an Ottoman princess.
1524 Thomas Linacre a humanist scholar and physician, after whom Linacre College, Oxford and Linacre House The King's School, Canterbury are named.
1538 Francesco Maria I della Rovere Duke of Urbino an Italian condottiero, who was Duke of Urbino from 1508 to 1516 and 1521 to 1538 when he retook the throne from Lorenzo II de' Medici.
1570 João de Barros one of the first great Portuguese historians, most famous for his Décadas da Ásia , a history of the Portuguese in India, Asia, and southeast Africa.
1587 Anne de Joyeuse a royal favourite and active participant in the French Wars of Religion.
1631 Michael Maestlin a German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.
1640 John Ball (Puritan) an English puritan divine.
1652 Antonio Coello a Spanish dramatist and poet. He entered the household of the duke de Albuquerque, and after some years of service in the army received the order of Santiago in 1648. He was a favorite of Philip IV, who is reported to have collaborated with him; this rumour is not confirmed, but there is ample proof of Coellos collaboration with Calderón, Rojas Zorrilla, Solis and Velez de Guevara, the most distinguished dramatists of the age. The best of his original plays, Los Empenos de seis horas, has been wrongly ascribed to Calderón; it was adapted by Samuel Tuke, under the title of The Adventures of Five Hours, and was described by Pepys as superior to Othello. - It is an excellent example of stagecraft and animated dialogue. Coello died on 20 October 1652, shortly after his nomination to a post in the household of Philip IV
1673 Barent Fabritius a Dutch painter.
1694 Christian II Duke of Saxe-Merseburg a duke of Saxe-Merseburg and member of the House of Wettin.
1713 Archibald Pitcairne a Scottish physician.
1740 Charles VI Holy Roman Emperor succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia , King of Hungary and Croatia , and King of Serbia , Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Charles II of Spain, in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, born 1717, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, born 1718, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands
1796 Gábor Dayka a Hungarian poet.
1801 Ivan Lazarevich Lazarev a Russian-Armenian jeweler, one of the richest patrons in Russia under Catherine the Great. He was born in Isfahan's New Julfa Armenian quarter, Iran and moved to Saint Petersburg in the 1860s
1806 Richard Weston (botanist) an English botanist.
1816 Solomon Spalding the author of two related texts: an unfinished manuscript entitled Manuscript Story – Conneaut Creek, and an unpublished historical romance about the lost civilization of the mound builders of North America called Manuscript, Found. Whether these texts are distinct is disputed. After Spalding's death, a number of individuals suggested that Spaulding's work was used as a source for the Book of Mormon, a scripture in the Latter Day Saint movement
1819 Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger a German philosopher and academic. He is known as a theorist of Romanticism, and of irony
1821 Félix de Azara a Spanish military officer, naturalist, and engineer.
1827 John Bowen (colonist) a naval officer and colonial administrator, who led the first settlement of Tasmania at Risdon Cove.
1835 Tanomura Chikuden a Japanese painter of the Edo period. He is known for his depictions of nature, often melancholic in style
1842 Alexandre de Laborde a French antiquary, liberal politician and writer, a member of the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques , under the rubric political economy.
1842 Grace Darling an English lighthouse keeper's daughter, famed for participating in the rescue of survivors from the shipwrecked Forfarshire in 1838.
1846 Makhambet Otemisuly a Kazakh poet and political figure. He is best known for his activity as a leader of rebellions against Russian colonialism. This activity is believed to have resulted in his murder in 1846. His first rebellions took place against Zhangir-Kerey Khan of the Bukey Horde. Because the rebellion was badly defeated and a bounty was placed on Utemisov, he had to flee the region
1850 Henryk Ludwik Lubomirski a Polish noble and a magnate.
1864 Carl Christian Rafn a Danish historian, translator and antiquarian. His scholarship to a large extent focused on translation of Old Norse literature and related Northern European ancient history. He was also noted for his early advocacy of the recognition of Viking explorations of North America
1864 Stephen Dodson Ramseur a Confederate general in the American Civil War, at one point the youngest in the army. He impressed Lee by his actions at Malvern Hill and Chancellorsville, where his brigade led Stonewall Jackson’s flank attack, taking 50% casualties. On the first day of Gettysburg, he dramatically routed a Union brigade, sending it running through the town, though his superiors did not authorise further pursuit. Ramseur also distinguished himself in the Overland campaign and the Valley campaign, where he was mortally wounded at Cedar Creek
1865 Champ Ferguson a notorious Confederate guerrilla during the American Civil War. He claimed to have killed over 100 Union soldiers and pro-Union civilians
1870 Michael William Balfe an Irish composer, best-remembered for his opera The Bohemian Girl.
1871 Karl Christian Ulmann a Baltic German theologian.
1872 Friedrich Welwitsch an Austrian explorer and botanist who in Angola discovered the plant Welwitschia mirabilis. His report received wide attention among the botanists and general public, comparable only to the discovery of two other plants in the 19th century, namely Victoria amazonica and Rafflesia arnoldii
1880 Lydia Maria Child an American abolitionist, women's rights activist, opponent of American expansionism, Indian rights activist, novelist, and journalist.
1890 Richard Francis Burton an English geographer, explorer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, Egyptologist and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African languages
1893 Philip Schaff a Swiss-born, German-educated Protestant theologian and a Church historian who spent most of his adult life living and teaching in the United States.
1896 Félix Tisserand a French astronomer.
1900 Naim Frashëri an Albanian poet and writer. He was one of the most prominent figures of the Albanian National Awakening of the 19th century, together with his two brothers Sami and Abdyl. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Albania
1907 Howard Saunders a British businessman, who later in life became a noted ornithologist, specialising in gulls and terns.
1907 Afanasi Matushenko a political activist, a non-commissioned officer in the Russian Black Sea Fleet, and head of the uprising on the Russian battleship Potemkin.
1910 David B. Hill an American politician from New York who was the 29th Governor of New York from 1885 to 1891.
1913 Viktor Kyrpychov a prominent Russian and Ukrainian engineer, physicist, and educational organizer, known especially for his work on applied and structural mechanics as well as for establishing the foundations for technical education in the Russian Empire.
1913 Daniel David Palmer or D.D. Palmer was the founder of chiropractic. Palmer was born in Pickering, Canada West and raised in the southern Ontario area, where he received his education
1913 William Clark (archer) an American archer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics. He won the silver medal in the team competition. In the Double American round he finished fifth
1914 Mona May Karff an American competitive chess player. Karff dominated U.S. women's chess in the 1940s and early 1950s and had an extended career. She held seven U.S. Women's Chess Champion titles and four consecutive U.S. Open titles