Born on October 21

1204 Robert de Beaumont 4th Earl of Leicester an English nobleman, the last of the Beaumont earls of Leicester. He is sometimes known as Robert FitzPernel
1258 Przemysław of Racibórz a Duke of Racibórz since 1282 until his death.
1258 Bolko I of Opole a Duke of Opole from 1282 , Niemodlin and Strzelce Opolskie until his death.
1328 Hongwu Emperor the founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China. His era name Hongwu means "vastly martial."
1409 Alessandro Sforza an Italian condottiero and lord of Pesaro, the first of the Pesaro line of the Sforza family.
1449 George Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of English Kings Edward IV and Richard III. He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses
1527 Louis I Cardinal of Guise the fourth son of Claude, Duke of Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon, and the younger brother of Charles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, and Mary of Guise, queen consort of King James V of Scotland. He was the nephew of Cardinal Jean de Lorraine. He is sometimes known as the cardinal de Guise
1536 Joachim Ernest Prince of Anhalt a German prince of the House of Ascania, ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst from 1551, and from 1570 sole ruler of all the Anhalt lands.
1581 Domenichino an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School, or Carracci School, of painters.
1629 Adolph John I Count Palatine of Kleeburg Count Palatine of Kleeburg from 1654 until 1689 and was considered Prince of Sweden until 1660.
1650 Jean Bart a French naval commander and privateer.
1658 Henri de Boulainvilliers a French nobleman, writer and historian. Educated at the college of Juilly, he served in the army until 1697
1675 Emperor Higashiyama the 113th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1687 Nicolaus I Bernoulli a Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
1689 Fyodor Shaklovity a Russian diplomat best known as a staunch adherent of the regent Sophia Alekseyevna, who had promoted him from a regular scrivener to a member of the Boyar Duma and okolnichy. Fyodor Shaklovity was then appointed head of the Streltsy Department after the execution of Ivan Khovansky in the aftermath of the Moscow Uprising of 1682
1696 James Fitz-James Stuart 2nd Duke of Berwick a Jacobite and Spanish nobleman. He inherited titles in the Jacobite and Spanish nobility on the death of his father in battle in 1734 at Philippsburg, , during the War of the Polish Succession. He was also Consort Duke of Veragua and of la Vega and a Consort-Marquis of four further titles by his Spanish marriage in 1716. His full title was 2nd Duke of Berwick, 2nd Earl of Tinmouth, 2nd Baron Bosworth, 2nd Duke of Liria and Xerica, Grandee of Spain 1st class , Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece , as well as the holder of several earldoms
1713 James Steuart (economist) a prominent Jacobite and author of "probably the first systematic treatise written in English about economics" and the first book in English with 'political economy' in the title. He assumed the surname of Denham late in life; he inherited his cousin's baronetcy of Coltness in 1773
1728 José Moñino 1st Count of Floridablanca a Spanish statesman. He was the reformist chief minister of King Charles III of Spain, and also served briefly under Charles He was arguably Spain's most effective statesman in the eighteenth century. In Spain, he is simply known as Conde de Floridablanca
1737 Marie-Louise O'Murphy one of the younger mistresses of King Louis XV of France. Her original surname is also given in sources as Murphy, Morphy, or O'Morphy, and she is sometimes referred to as "La Morphise" or "La Belle Morphise"
1749 Tadeusz Brzozowski Very Rev. Tadeusz Brzozowski, S.J. was a Polish Jesuit, elected 19th Superior General of the Society of Jesus
1751 Giovanni Maria Angioy considered to be a national hero by Sardinian nationalists. Although best known for his political activities, Angioy was a university lecturer, a judge for the Reale Udienza, an entrepreneur and a banker
1755 Quatremère de Quincy a French armchair archaeologist and architectural theorist, a Freemason, and an effective arts administrator and influential writer on art.
1757 Pierre Augereau a soldier and general and Marshal of France. After serving in the French Revolutionary Wars he earned rapid promotion while fighting against Spain and soon found himself a division commander under Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy. He fought in all of Bonaparte's battles of 1796 with great distinction. During the Napoleonic Wars, Emperor Napoleon entrusted him with important commands. His life ended under a cloud because of his poor timing in switching sides between Napoleon and King Louis XVIII of France. Napoleon wrote of Augereau that he "has plenty of character, courage, firmness, activity; is inured to war; is well liked by the soldiery; is fortunate in his operations."
1762 George Colman the Younger the son of George Colman "the Elder". His surname is often misspelled as "Coleman"
1762 Herman Willem Daendels a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 and 1811.
1764 János Bihari an influential Hungarian Romani violinist. He is one of the founders of Romani academic music and the musical genre verbunkos
1772 Claude Charles Fauriel a French historian, philologist and critic.
1772 Samuel Taylor Coleridge an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. He wrote the poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as the major prose work Biographia Literaria. His critical work, especially on Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture. He coined many familiar words and phrases, including the celebrated suspension of disbelief. He was a major influence on Emerson, and American transcendentalism
1775 Giuseppe Baini an Italian priest, music critic, and composer of church music.
1785 Henry Miller Shreve the American inventor and steamboat captain who opened the Mississippi, Ohio and Red rivers to steamboat navigation. Shreveport, Louisiana, is named in his honor
1786 John Conroy a British army officer who served as comptroller to the Duchess of Kent and her young daughter, Princess Victoria, the future Queen of the United Kingdom.
1790 Alphonse de Lamartine a French writer, poet and politician who was instrumental in the foundation of the Second Republic and the continuation of the Tricolore as the flag of France.
1807 Napoléon Henri Reber a French composer.
1811 Filippo Colini an Italian operatic baritone. He is best known today for creating roles in the world premieres of several operas by Giuseppe Verdi, including Giacomo in Giovanna d'Arco , Rolando in La battaglia di Legnano , and Stankar in Stiffelio
1813 Princess Josephine of Baden born at Mannheim, the daughter of Charles, Grand Duke of Baden and his wife, Stéphanie de Beauharnais. Through her eldest son Leopold and also through her daughter Marie, she is the ancestress of the Romanian royal family and the Yugoslav Royal Family. Through her daughter Marie, she is also the ancestress of the Belgian royal family and the Grand Ducal family of Luxemburg
1817 Wilhelm Georg Friedrich Roscher a German economist from Hanover.
1817 Pietro Magni (sculptor) an Italian sculptor. Born in Milan, he studied at that city's Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera before moving to the workshop of Abbondio Sangiorgio. Later in his career he became influenced by Tuscan sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, whose work he first encountered in 1837. He traveled to study in Rome, joining Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1849. He is best known for his Girl Reading, first carved in 1856; today the original may be seen in Milan's Galleria d'Arte Moderna, while copies exist in numerous other museum collections. Among Magni's other works are a public monument to Leonardo da Vinci and several marble sculpture groups; he also executed statues for the Milan Cathedral in the 1860s
1819 Milan Obrenović II Prince of Serbia in Kragujevac, Serbia. He was the ruling Prince of Serbia for just short of four weeks in 1839
1820 Friedrich Alefeld a botanist, author, and medical practitioner. Born in Weiterstadt-Gräfenhausen, Grand Duchy of Hesse, he described a number of plant species in his published works, taking a particular interest in legumes and malvaceae. He attempted to give a systematic treatment of German crops in one work, in addition to writing treatises on herbal baths and cultivated plants of potential usefulness. A number of his essays appeared in the botanical literature of the day
1821 Sims Reeves the foremost English operatic, oratorio and ballad tenor vocalist of the mid-Victorian era.
1822 Adolph Strecker remembered primarily for his work with amino acids.
1823 Victor Lemoine a celebrated and prolific French flower breeder who, among other accomplishments, created many of today's lilac varieties. As a result of his accomplishments, the term French lilac has come to mean all cultivars of the common lilac that have double flowers, regardless of their origin
1823 Enrico Betti an Italian mathematician, now remembered mostly for his 1871 paper on topology that led to the later naming after him of the Betti numbers. He worked also on the theory of equations, giving early expositions of Galois theory. He also discovered Betti's theorem, a result in the theory of elasticity
1823 Gaston Audiffret-Pasquier a French politician and member of the Académie française, Seat 16. He was preceded in his position by Félix Dupanloup and succeeded by Alexandre Ribot
1832 Gustav Langenscheidt a German language teacher, book publisher, and the founder of Langenscheidt Publishing Group.
1833 Alfred Nobel a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer.
1836 Giorgio Miceli an Italian opera composer who played mandolin and wrote music for the instrument.
1840 Ivan Minayev the first Russian Indologist whose disciples included Serge Oldenburg, Th. Stcherbatsky, and Dmitry Kudryavsky
1845 Will Carleton an American poet. Carleton's poems were most often about his rural life
1846 Edmondo De Amicis an Italian novelist, journalist, poet and short-story writer. His best-known book is the children's novel Heart