Died on October 21

1125 Cosmas of Prague a priest, writer and historian born in a noble family in Bohemia. Between 1075 and 1081, he studied in Liège. After his return to Bohemia, he became a priest and married Božetěcha, with whom he probably had a son. In 1086, Cosmas was appointed prebendary of Prague, a prestigious position. As prebendary he also travelled through Europe on official matters
1221 Alix Duchess of Brittany hereditary Duchess of Brittany and 5th Countess of Richmond from 1203 to her death.
1266 Birger Jarl a Swedish statesman, Jarl of Sweden and a member of the House of Bjelbo, who played a pivotal role in the consolidation of Sweden. Birger also led the Second Swedish Crusade, which established Swedish rule in Finland. Additionally, he is traditionally attributed to have founded the Swedish capital, Stockholm around 1250. Birger used the Latin title of Dux Sweorum which in English equals Duke of Sweden, and the design of his coronet combined those used by continental European and English dukes
1294 Konrad II of Masovia the eldest son of Siemowit I of Masovia and his wife Perejesława, daughter of Daniel of Galicia.
1422 Charles VI of France King of France from 1380 to his death. He was a member of the House of Valois
1425 Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmorland an English nobleman of the House of Neville.
1494 Gian Galeazzo Sforza the sixth Duke of Milan.
1500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado the 103rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1464 through 1500
1505 Paul Scriptoris a German Franciscan mathematician, Scotist, and professor at the University of Tübingen. His surname is a Latin translation of the original German name Schreiber. Born in Weil der Stadt, Scriptoris studied at Paris and joined the Franciscan order. He subsequently began teaching at Tübingen. Konrad Pellikan, who became Scriptoris’ most favored pupil, joined him at Tübingen in March 1496
1528 Johann of Schwarzenberg a German moralist and reformer who, as judge of the episcopal court at Bamberg, introduced a new code of evidence which amended the procedure then prevalent in Europe by securing for the accused a more impartial hearing.
1556 Pietro Aretino an Italian author, playwright, poet, satirist, and blackmailer, who wielded immense influence on contemporary art and politics and invented modern literate pornography.
1558 Julius Caesar Scaliger an Italian scholar and physician who spent a major part of his career in France. He employed the techniques and discoveries of Renaissance humanism to defend Aristotelianism against the new learning. In spite of his arrogant and contentious disposition, his contemporary reputation was high, judging him so distinguished by his learning and talents that, according to Jacques August de Thou, none of the ancients could be placed above him, and the age in which he lived could not show his equal
1565 John Frederick III Duke of Saxony German nobleman. He was a titular Duke of Saxony from the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin. He received Saxe-Gotha as an apanage, but left its administration to his eldest brother
1571 Hōjō Ujiyasu the son of Hōjō Ujitsuna and a daimyō of the Odawara Hōjō clan. His only known wife was Imagawa Yoshimoto's sister, Suikeiin
1600 Toda Katsushige a daimyo in Sengoku period and Azuchi-Momoyama period.
1600 Ōtani Yoshitsugu a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period through the Azuchi-Momoyama Period. He was also known by his court title, Gyōbu-shōyū. He was born in 1558 to a father who was said to be a retainer of either Ōtomo Sōrin or of Rokkaku Yoshikata. He became one of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's followers. He participated in the Kyūshū, Toyotomi campaign, and was sent to Korea as one of the Three Bureaucrats with Mashita Nagamori and Ishida Mitsunari
1602 David I of Kakheti a king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from October 1601 until his death in October 1602.
1623 William Wade (English politician) an English statesman and diplomat, and Lieutenant of the Tower of London.
1627 Frederick de Houtman a Dutch explorer who sailed along the Western coast of Australia en route to Batavia, nowadays known as Jakarta in Indonesia. He made pioneering observations of the southern stars that contributed to the creation of 12 new southern constellations
1637 Laurens Reael an employee of the Dutch East India Company , Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1616 to 1619 and an admiral of the Dutch navy from 1625 to 1627.
1638 Willem Blaeu Janszoon Blaeu , also abbreviated to Willem Jansz. Blaeu, was a Dutch cartographer, atlas maker and publisher
1662 Henry Lawes an English musician and composer.
1687 Edmund Waller an English poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1624 and 1679.
1695 Johann Arnold Nering a German Baroque architect in the service of Brandenburg-Prussia.
1708 Christian Weise a German writer, dramatist, poet, pedagogue and librarian of the Baroque era. He produced a large number of dramatic works, noted for their social criticism and idiomatic style. In the 1670s he started a fashion for German "political novels". He has also been credited with the invention of the mathematical Euler diagram, though this is uncertain
1765 Giovanni Paolo Panini mainly known as one of the vedutisti. As a painter, Panini is best known for his vistas of Rome, in which he took a particular interest in the city's antiquities. Among his most famous works are his view of the interior of the Pantheon , and his vedute—paintings of picture galleries containing views of Rome. Most of his works, specially those of ruins, have a fanciful and unreal embellishment characteristic of capriccio themes. In this they resemble the capricci of Marco Ricci. Panini also painted portraits, including one of Pope Benedict XIV
1775 François-Hubert Drouais a French painter and the father of Jean-Germain Drouais.
1777 Samuel Foote a British dramatist, actor and theatre manager from Cornwall. He was known for his comedic acting and writing, and for turning the loss of a leg in a riding accident in 1766 to comedic opportunity
1793 Johann Hartmann a Danish composer. Two of his sons were composers, Johan Ernst Hartmann and August Wilhelm Hartmann. The latter's sons included Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann
1805 Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of decisive naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded several times in combat, losing one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife and the sight in one eye in Corsica. He was shot and killed during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805
1805 John Cooke (Royal Navy officer) an experienced and highly regarded officer of the Royal Navy during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and the first years of the Napoleonic Wars. Cooke is best known for his death in hand-to-hand combat with French forces during the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. During the action, his ship HMS Bellerophon was badly damaged and boarded by sailors and marines from the French ship of the line Aigle. Cooke was killed in the ensuing melee, but his crew successfully drove off their opponents and ultimately forced the surrender of Aigle
1805 George Duff a British naval officer during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, who was killed by a cannonball at the Battle of Trafalgar.
1810 Franz Teyber an Austrian Kapellmeister, organist and composer of orchestral and chamber music. Studying at Wagenseil, from 1786 he was director of the Schikaneder theatre company and from 1801 a composer and musical director of the Theater an der Wien. His sisters Elisabeth and Therese were opera singers, and his brother Anton worked as a composer to the Dresden opera and Vienna court
1821 Dorothea Ackermann a German actress and the oldest daughter of Konrad Ackermann.
1825 Theodor von Schubert a German astronomer and geographer. Born in Helmstedt, his father, Johann Ernst Schubert, was a professor of theology and abbot of Michaelstein Abbey. Theodor likewise studied theology, but didn't like He traveled abroad, first to Sweden in 1779. He then went to Bartelshagen, where he became the tutor of the children of Major von Cronhelm. Since the major was fond of mathematics and astronomy, Theodor had to study these himself to be able to teach those subjects. He then married the daughter of the major, Luise Friederike von Cronhelm. Afterwards, he traveled to Tallinn in Estonia, again as a house teacher. He moved on to Haapsalu, teaching mathematics to young noblemen as a preparation for a life as an officer. In 1785 he became an assistant of the Russian Academy of Sciences as a geographer, and by June 1789 he was a full member. In 1803, he became head of the astronomical observatory of the Academy. In 1805, he was a member of the failed Russian expedition to China, together with his son. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1812
1837 Josef Gusikov a klezmer who gave the first performances of klezmer music to West European concert audiences on his 'wood and straw instrument'.
1841 John Forsyth (Georgia) a 19th-century American politician from Georgia.
1844 Nikoloz Baratashvili a Georgian poet, one of the first Georgians to marry a modern nationalism with European Romanticism and to introduce "Europeanism" into Georgian literature. Despite his early death and a tiny literary heritage of fewer than forty short lyrics, one extended poem, and a few private letters, Baratashvili is considered to be the high point of Georgian Romanticism. He was referred as the "Georgian Byron"
1849 Dmitry Buturlin a Russian general and military historian from an old noble family of Ratshid stock. He was admitted into the Governing Senate in May 1833 and into the State Council of Imperial Russia in December 1840
1849 Charles Edward Horn an English composer and singer. He was born in St Martin-in-the-Fields, London to Charles Frederick Horn and his wife, Diana Dupont. He was the eldest of their seven children. His father taught him music; he also took music lessons briefly in 1808 from singer Venanzio Rauzzini in Bath, Somerset. Horn made his singing debut on 26 June 1809 with a performance in the comic opera Up All Night, or the Smuggler's Cave at Lyceum Theatre, London. Horn continued singing, including a well-received turn in 1814 as Seraskier in Stephen Storace's The Siege of Belgrade. He achieved prominence with his portrayal of Caspar in the English version of Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz in 1824
1849 Friedrich von Müller (statesman) a German statesman.
1854 Maria Wirtemberska a Polish noble lady, writer, and philanthropist.
1856 Hendrik Tollens a Dutch poet best known for Wien Neêrlands Bloed, the national anthem of the Netherlands between 1815 and 1932.
1860 Charles Gordon-Lennox 5th Duke of Richmond a British soldier, politician and a prominent Conservative.
1872 Jacques Babinet best known for his contributions to optics.
1873 Johan Sebastian Welhaven a Norwegian author, poet, critic and art theorist.
1881 Johann Kaspar Bluntschli a Swiss jurist and politician.
1881 Eduard Heine a German mathematician.
1885 Michele Novaro an Italian songwriter. He composed the Italian national anthem popularly known as the "Inno di Mameli", which was unofficially adopted in 1946 and confirmed in 2005
1886 José Hernández (writer) an Argentine journalist, poet, and politician best known as the author of the epic poem Martín Fierro.