October 21 events in history

1096 People's Crusade: The Turkish army successfully fight off the People's Army of the West
1097 First Crusade: Crusaders led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch
1209 Otto IV is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III
1392 Nanboku-chō: Emperor Go-Kameyama abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu
1512 Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg
1520 Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan
1520 João Álvares Fagundes discovers the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, bestowing them their original name of "Islands of the 11,000 Virgins"
1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate that in effect rules Japan until the mid-nineteenth century
1774 First display of the word "Liberty" on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts in defiance of British rule in Colonial America
1797 In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched
1805 Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar: A British fleet led by Vice Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve, signaling almost the end of French maritime power and leaves Britain's navy unchallenged until the 20th century
1816 The Penang Free School is founded in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, by the Rev Hutchings, the oldest English-language school in Southeast Asia
1824 Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement
1854 Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War
1861 American Civil War: Battle of Ball's Bluff – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. Baker, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, is killed in the fighting
1867 Manifest Destiny: Medicine Lodge Treaty – Near Medicine Lodge, Kansas a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate to a reservation in western Oklahoma
1879 Thomas Edison invents a workable electric light bulb at his laboratory in Menlo Park, N.J. which was tested the next day and lasted 13.5 hours. This would be the invention of the first commercially practical incandescent light. Popular belief is that he invented the first light bulb, which he did not
1888 Foundation of the Swiss Social Democratic Party
1892 Opening ceremonies for the World's Columbian Exposition are held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, 1893
1895 The Republic of Formosa collapses as Japanese forces invade
1902 In the United States, a five-month strike by United Mine Workers ends
1910 HMS Niobe arrives in Halifax Harbour to become the first ship of the Royal Canadian Navy
1912 First Balkan War: Kardzhali is liberated by Bulgarian forces
1921 President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting U.S. President against lynching in the deep South
1921 George Melford's silent film, The Sheik, starring Rudolph Valentino, premiers
1931 The Sakurakai, a secret society in the Imperial Japanese Army, launches an abortive coup d'état attempt
1940 The first edition of the Ernest Hemingway novel For Whom the Bell Tolls is published
1941 World War II: In Kragujevac, Serbia, German Wehrmacht soldiers butcher about 7,000 citizens, including schoolchildren and professors
1943 The Provisional Government of Free India is formally declared by Subhas Chandra Bose
1944 World War II: The first kamikaze attack — A Japanese fighter plane carrying a 200-kilogram (440 lb) bomb attacks HMAS Australia off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began
1944 World War II: Nemmersdorf massacre against the German civilians takes place
1944 World War II: Battle of Aachen — The city of Aachen falls to American forces after three weeks of fighting, making it the first German city to fall to the Allies
1945 Women's suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time
1950 Korean War: Heavy fighting begins between British and Australian forces from the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade and the North Korean 239th Regiment during the Battle of Yongju
1956 Mau Mau Uprising: Kenyan rebel leader Dedan Kimathi is captured by the British Army, signalling the ultimate defeat of the rebellion, and essentially ending the British military campaign
1959 In New York City, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opens to the public
1959 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA
1965 Comet Ikeya-Seki approaches perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers (279,617 miles) from the sun
1966 Aberfan disaster: A slag heap collapses on the village of Aberfan in Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren
1967 Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, D.C.. A peaceful rally at the Lincoln Memorial is followed by a march to The Pentagon and clashes with soldiers and United States Marshals protecting the facility. Similar demonstrations occurred simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe
1969 A coup d'état in Somalia brings Siad Barre to power and establishes a socialist republic in Somalia
1971 A gas explosion kills 22 people at a shopping center in Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, near Glasgow, Scotland
1973 John Paul Getty III's ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome; it doesn't arrive until November 8
1973 Fred Dryer of the then Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game
1977 The European Patent Institute is founded
1978 Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich vanishes in a Cessna 182 over the Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft
1979 Moshe Dayan resigns from the Israeli government because of strong disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policy towards the Arabs
1981 Andreas Papandreou becomes Prime Minister of Greece, ending an almost 50-year long system of power dominated by conservative forces
1983 The metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second
1986 In Lebanon, pro-Iran kidnappers claim to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he is released in August 1991)