Born on October 23

1491 Ignatius of Loyola a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by absolute obedience to the Pope
1516 Charlotte of Valois the second child and second daughter of King Francis I and his wife Claude.
1636 Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp Queen of Sweden from 1654 until 1660. She was the wife of Charles X Gustav of Sweden and mother of Charles She served as regent during the minority of her son from 1660 until 1672, and during the minority of her grandson Charles XII in 1697. She also represented Charles XII during his absence in the Great Northern War from 1700 until the regency of her granddaughter Ulrika Eleonora in 1713. Hedwig Eleonora was described as a dominant personality and was regarded as the de facto first lady of the royal court for 61 years, from 1654 until her death
1654 Johann Bernhard Staudt an Austrian Jesuit composer.
1663 Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach a princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach and through her marriage duchess of Württemberg-Winnental.
1698 Ange-Jacques Gabriel the most prominent French architect of his generation.
1705 Maximilian Ulysses Browne an Austrian military leader during the middle of the 18th century, and a scion of the Irish "Wild Geese".
1713 Pieter Burman the Younger a Dutch philologist, born at Amsterdam.
1715 Peter II of Russia the Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. He was the only son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, son of Peter I of Russia by his first consort Eudoxia Lopukhina, and Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1725 Thomas Graves 1st Baron Graves a British Admiral and colonial official.
1727 Cäcilia Weber the mother of Constanze Weber and the mother-in-law of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
1734 Nicolas-Edme Rétif a French novelist. The term retifism for shoe fetishism was named after him
1752 Maria Anna Adamberger an Austrian actress. She was known for her roles in various comedies, while her sister Katharina Adamberger preferred tragic roles. Heinrich von Collin and other poets have composed pieces about her
1756 François Chabot a French politician.
1762 Samuel Morey an American inventor, who worked on early internal combustion engines and was a pioneer in steamships who accumulated a total of 20 patents.
1766 Emmanuel de Grouchy Marquis de Grouchy a French general and marshal.
1773 Pietro Generali an Italian composer primarily of operas and vocal music.
1790 Chauncey Allen Goodrich an American clergyman, educator and lexicographer. He was the son-in-law of Noah Webster and edited his Dictionary after his father-in-law's death
1796 Stefano Franscini a Swiss politician and statistician. He was one of the initial members of the Swiss Federal Council elected in 1848 and Switzerland's first native Italian speaking federal councillor. Franscini was affiliated to the Liberal Radical Party of Switzerland. During his office tenure he held the Department of Home Affairs. Important elements of his political legacy include political reforms in the Ticino during the 1830s and 1840s, Switzerland's first federal population census in 1850, and the creation of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in 1854/1855
1800 Henri Milne-Edwards an eminent French zoologist.
1801 Albert Lortzing a German composer, actor and singer. He is considered to be the main representative of the German Spieloper, a form similar to the French opéra comique, which grew out of the Singspiel
1805 John Russell Bartlett an American historian and linguist.
1805 Adalbert Stifter an Austrian writer, poet, painter, and pedagogue. He was especially notable for the vivid natural landscapes depicted in his writing, and has long been popular in the German-speaking world, while almost entirely unknown to English readers
1813 Ludwig Leichhardt a Prussian explorer and naturalist, most famous for his exploration of northern and central Australia.
1813 Félix Ravaisson-Mollien a French philosopher and archaeologist.
1814 Friedrich Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg the third Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Friedrich was the second-eldest son of Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Princess Louise Caroline of Hesse-Kassel and an elder brother of Christian IX of Denmark. Friedrich inherited the title of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg upon his childless brother Karl's death on 14 October 1878
1815 João Maurício Vanderlei Baron of Cotejipe a magistrate and Brazilian politician of the Conservative Party.
1817 Pierre Larousse a French grammarian, lexicographer and encyclopaedist. He published many of the outstanding educational and reference works of 19th-century France, including the 15 volume Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle
1818 Michele Novaro an Italian songwriter. He composed the Italian national anthem popularly known as the "Inno di Mameli", which was unofficially adopted in 1946 and confirmed in 2005
1821 Max von Forckenbeck a German lawyer and politician and served as Mayor of Berlin from 1878 to 1892. His is considered one of the most important mayors of the city because of his prudent management style
1821 Philipp Ludwig von Seidel a German mathematician. His mother was Julie Reinhold and his father was Justus Christian Felix Seidel
1822 Gustav Spörer a German astronomer.
1823 Hans Kudlich an Austrian political activist, Austrian legislator, writer and physician.
1825 Apollinaire de Kontski a Polish violinist, teacher and minor composer.
1828 Turner Ashby a Confederate cavalry commander in the American Civil War. He had achieved prominence as Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson's cavalry commander, in the grade of colonel, in the Shenandoah Valley before he was killed in the Battle of Good's Farm. Although he is sometimes referred to as a general and his name often appears in lists of Confederate generals, his appointment as brigadier general was never confirmed by the Confederate Senate. He died two weeks after his appointment and the Confederate Senate did not act to confirm the appointment during that time
1833 Jean Baptiste Louis Pierre also known as B. Louis Pierre, was a French botanist known for his Asian studies
1834 Hermann Usener a German scholar in the fields of philology and comparative religion.
1835 Stanislas Lépine a French painter who specialized in landscapes, especially views of the Seine.
1835 Adlai Stevenson I Ewing Stevenson I served as the 23rd Vice President of the United States. Previously, he served as a Congressman from Illinois in the late 1870s and early 1880s. After his subsequent appointment as Assistant Postmaster General of the United States during Grover Cleveland's first administration , he fired many Republican postal workers and replaced them with Southern Democrats. This earned him the enmity of the Republican-controlled Congress, but made him a favorite as Grover Cleveland's running mate in 1892, and he duly became 23rd Vice President of the United States
1837 Moritz Kaposi a Hungarian physician and dermatologist who discovered the skin tumor that received his name.
1840 Dmitry Karakozov the first Russian revolutionary to make an attempt on the life of a tsar.
1844 Wilhelm Leibl a German realist painter of portraits and scenes of peasant life.
1844 Robert Bridges a British poet, and poet laureate from 1913 to 1930.
1846 Alexander Arkhangelsky (composer) a Russian composer of church music and conductor.
1848 Princess Amalie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha a Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha by birth and a Duchess in Bavaria through her marriage to Duke Maximilian Emanuel in Bavaria. Amalie was the fourth child and second eldest daughter of Prince August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his wife Princess Clémentine of Orléans. Her youngest brother was Ferdinand I of Bulgaria
1849 Saionji Kinmochi a Japanese politician, statesman and twice Prime Minister of Japan. His title does not signify the son of an emperor, but the highest rank of Japanese hereditary nobility; he was elevated from marquis to prince in 1920. As the last surviving genrō, he was Japan's most honored statesman of the 1920s and 1930s
1852 Jean-Louis Forain a French Impressionist painter, lithographer, watercolorist and etcher.
1854 Annie Lorrain Smith a British lichenologist whose Lichens was an essential textbook for several decades. She was also a mycologist and founder member of the British Mycological Society, where she served as president for two terms
1855 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Menzbier a Russian ornithologist. Based in Moscow, he was a founding member of Russia’s first ornithological body, the Kessler Ornithological Society. One of his major areas of work was on the taxonomy of birds of prey. Menzbier was a professor of comparative anatomy at Moscow University from 1886 until 1911, when he resigned in protest against the oppressive treatment of students there. Following the Russian Revolution in 1917 he became Rector of the University. As well as being a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Menzbier was elected an honorary member of the British Ornithologists' Union and the Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft, and a corresponding member of the Zoological Society of London, of the Société zoologique de France and the American Ornithologists' Union. He is commemorated in the names of Menzbier's Marmot and the Menzbier Ornithological Society
1856 Jaša Tomić a Serb politician, publicist, journalist and man of letters from the Serbian region of Vojvodina, which was part of Austrian Empire when Jaša Tomić was born.