Died on October 23

42 Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger a politician of the late Roman Republic. After being adopted by his uncle he used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, but eventually returned to using his original name
877 Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople a Patriarch of Constantinople from July 4, 847, to October 23, 858, and from November 23, 867, to his death on October 23, 877. In the Roman Martyrology of the Roman Catholic Church, he is regarded as a saint, with a feast day of October 23
930 Emperor Daigo the 60th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
1046 Uta von Ballenstedt the Margravine of Meissen, the wife of Eckard II, and the subject of a famous portrait by the Naumburg Master.
1134 Abu al-Salt an Andalusian polymath whose works on astronomical instruments were read both in the Islamic world and Europe. He also worked as a physician, a teacher of alchemy, and wrote treatises on medicine, philosophy, music, and history. He became well known in Europe through translations of his works made in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern France. He is also credited with introducing Andalusian music to Tunis, which later led to the development of the Tunisian ma'luf
1157 Sweyn III of Denmark the King of Denmark between 1146 and 1157, in shifting alliances with Canute V and his own cousin Valdemar In 1157, the three agreed a tripartition of Denmark. Sweyn attempted to kill his rivals at the peace banquet, and was subsequently defeated by Valdemar I at the Battle of Grathe Heath and killed
1456 John of Capistrano a Franciscan friar and Catholic priest from the Italian town of Capestrano, Abruzzo. Famous as a preacher, theologian, and inquisitor, he earned himself the nickname 'the Soldier Saint' when in 1456 at age 70 he led a crusade against the invading Ottoman Empire at the siege of Belgrade with the Hungarian military commander John Hunyadi
1550 Tiedemann Giese a member of the patrician Giese family of Danzig. His father was Albrecht Giese and his brother, the Hanseatic League merchant Georg Giese. Another relative was Albrecht Giese. Tiedemann became Bishop of Culm first canon, later Prince-Bishop of Warmia
1557 Mohammed ash-Sheikh the first sultan of the Saadi dynasty ruling over Morocco. "Al-Drawi at-Tagmadert" means: the man from the Draa river valley, from Tagmadert. He was particularly successful in expelling the Portuguese from most of their bases in Morocco. He also eliminated the Wattasids and resisted the Ottomans, thereby establishing a complete rule over Morocco
1581 Michael Neander a German teacher, mathematician, medical academic, and astronomer.
1595 Louis Gonzaga Duke of Nevers an Italian-French dignitary and diplomat in France. He was the third child of Frederick II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and Margaret Palaeologina
1616 Leonhard Hutter a German Lutheran theologian.
1638 John Ernest Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a duke of Saxe-Eisenach and later of Saxe-Coburg.
1688 Charles du Fresne sieur du Cange a distinguished philologist and historian of the Middle Ages and Byzantium.
1698 David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl a Swedish nobleman and portrait painter.
1725 Charles Whitworth 1st Baron Whitworth a British diplomat.
1730 Anne Oldfield born in London, the daughter of a soldier.
1764 Emmanuel-Auguste de Cahideuc Comte Dubois de la Motte a French naval officer.
1764 Pierre-Charles Roy a French poet and man of letters, noted for his collaborations with the composers François Francoeur and André Cardinal Destouches, to produce librettos for several opera-ballets, on classical subjects or pseudo-classical pastiches, for seven tragedies, and for his rivalry with the young Voltaire, who immortalised Roy with some disdainful public words.
1774 Michel Benoist most noted for the waterworks he constructed for the emperor.
1816 Prince Iulon of Georgia a Georgian royal prince of the House of Bagrationi, born into the family of King Heraclius II and Queen Darejan Dadiani. He advanced claim to the throne of Kartli and Kakheti after the death of his half-brother George XII in 1800 and opposed the Russian annexation of Georgia until being apprehended and deported in 1805 to Tula. He died in Petersburg and was buried at the Alexander Nevsky Lavra
1827 Henry S. Thibodaux a planter and politician, who served one month in 1824 as the fourth Governor of Louisiana. At the time that Governor Thomas Robertson resigned in 1824 to accept appointment as a federal judge, Thibodeaux was President of the State Senate and succeeded him as Acting Governor, until Henry Johnson was elected
1834 Fath-Ali Shah Qajar the second Qajar Shah of Persia. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death
1842 Michel Claparède a French general. His name is engraved on the Arc de Triomphe
1852 Georg August Wallin a Finnish orientalist, explorer and professor remembered for his journeys in the Middle East during the 1840s.
1855 François André Michaux a French botanist, son of André Michaux and the namesake of Michaux State Forest in Pennsylvania. Michaux père botanized in North America for nearly a dozen years as royal collector for France
1861 Jorge Córdova a military officer and constitutional president of Bolivia.
1861 José María Linares president of Bolivia from 1857 to 1861. He was born in Tical, Potosí, on a farm. Belonging to the noble and wealthy family of the Counts of Lords and House of Rodrigo in Navarre, Linares was related to the Spanish nobility. He was educated at the Royal and Pontifical University of San Francisco Xavier, in Sucre
1867 Franz Bopp a German linguist known for extensive comparative work on Indo-European languages.
1869 Edward Smith-Stanley 14th Earl of Derby an English statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. His record was unusual, since he is one of only four British Prime Ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However his ministries all lasted less than two years, and totalled 3 years 280 days
1871 Alexander Afanasyev a Russian Slavist who published nearly 600 Russian folktales and fairytales, one of the largest folktale collection in the world. The first edition of his collection was published in eight fascicules from 1855–67, earning him the reputation of the Russian counterpart to the Brothers Grimm
1872 Théophile Gautier a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic.
1874 Abraham Geiger a German rabbi and scholar who led the founding of Reform Judaism. He sought to remove all nationalistic elements from Judaism, stressing it as an evolving and changing religion
1880 Bettino Ricasoli an Italian statesman.
1882 Johannes Theodor Reinhardt a Danish zoologist and herpetologist. He was the son of Johannes Christopher Hagemann Reinhardt
1885 Charles S. West an American jurist and politician in the state of Texas, serving as a state representative, the Texas Secretary of State, and an Associate Justice of the Texas Supreme Court.
1887 Elihu B. Washburne an American politician and diplomat. A member of the Washburn family of Maine, which played a prominent role in the early formation of the United States Republican Party, Washburne served as a congressman from Illinois before and during the American Civil War, and was a political ally of President Abraham Lincoln and General Ulysses Grant
1890 Charles Verlat a Belgian painter from Antwerp. He was a pupil of Nicaise de Keyser, and studied at the Antwerp Academy
1891 Ambrose of Optina a starets and a hieroschemamonk in Optina Monastery, canonized in 1988 by the Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church.
1892 Abdyl Frashëri a prominent Hero of Albania. Frasheri was an Albanian Academic, Statesman, diplomat, and politician in the Ottoman Empire. He is one of the first Albanian political ideologues of the Albanian National Awakening being an initiator and prominent Leader of Albanian League of Prizren. He distinguished himself as a political personality from 1860's through early political assignments. He founded the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights in Constantinople and served as a deputy representative for the Yanya Vilayet in the Ottoman Parliament during the 1st Constitutional Era, 1876–1877
1892 Emin Pasha an Ottoman-German physician, naturalist, and governor of the Egyptian province of Equatoria on the upper Nile. The Ottoman Empire conferred the title "Pasha" on him in 1886, and thereafter he was referred to as "Emin Pasha"
1893 Alexander of Battenberg the first prince of modern Bulgaria from 29 April 1879 to 7 September 1886.
1893 Thomas Leonidas Crittenden a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War.
1896 Columbus Delano a lawyer and a statesman and a member of the prominent Delano family. Delano was elected U.S. Congressman from Ohio, serving two terms; the first from 1845 to 1847 and the second from 1865 to 1867. Prior to the American Civil War, Delano supported the Free Soil movement that was against the spread of slavery in the Western territories. During Reconstruction Delano advocated state protection of African Americans civil rights, and argued that the former Confederate states were actual states, but not part of the United States. Delano served as President Grant's Secretary of Interior during a time of rapid Westward expansionism. Delano had to contend with conflicts between Native American tribes and settlers. Secretary Delano was instrumental in the establishment of America's first national park, supervising the first U.S. federally funded 1871 exploratory scientific expedition into Yellowstone. Delano believed the best Indian policy was to allot Native American tribes on Indian Territory reservations; believing that tribal communalism living led to Indian wars and impoverishment. Delano believed that the reservation system humanely protected Native Americans from the encroachment of western settlers. He advocated Indian assimilation and independence from federal funding. Delano supported the slaughter of buffalo, essential to the Plains Indians' lifestyle, in order to stop their nomadic hunting. Delano's tenure was marred by profiteering and corruption in his Interior Department by Indian Bureau agents posing as attorneys and Patent clerks who became wealthy through fraudulent land grants. As a result, Delano was forced to resign by President Grant in 1875. Historians believe that although Delano was personally honest, he was not a reformer, and he was careless in his management of the Interior Department
1897 Georges de Layens a French botanist and apiculturalist. He was the creator of a popular mobile beehive called the "Layens hive"
1897 Princess Agnes of Anhalt-Dessau the eldest daughter of Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt by his wife Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia. She was a member of the House of Ascania, and by her marriage to Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, Duchess consort of Saxe-Altenburg
1898 Michele Stefano de Rossi an Italian seismologist. He was a younger brother to archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi
1899 Ludwig Straus an Austrian violinist.
1900 Joseph Sembratovych the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1870 until his resignation in 1882.
1902 Aleksei Kozhevnikov a Russian neurologist and psychiatrist who was a native of Ryazan.