Born on October 24

51 Domitian Roman emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty
1260 Qutuz the third of the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt in the Turkic line from 1259 until his death in 1260. It was under his leadership that the Mamluks achieved success against the Mongols in the key Battle of Ain Jalut. Qutuz was assassinated by a fellow Mamluk leader, Baibars, on the triumphant return journey to Cairo. Although Qutuz's reign was short, he is one of the most popular Mamluk sultans in the Islamic world and holds one of the highest positions in Islamic history
1378 David Stewart Duke of Rothesay prince and heir to the throne of Scotland from 1390 and the first Duke of Rothesay from 1398. He was named after his great-great-uncle, David II of Scotland, and also held the titles of Earl of Atholl and Earl of Carrick. He shares with his uncle and arch-rival, Robert Stewart, first Duke of Albany, the distinction of being first Dukes to be created in the Scottish Peerage. David never became King. His marriage to Marjorie Douglas, daughter of Archibald the Grim, the third Earl of Douglas, was without issue
1435 Andrea della Robbia an Italian Renaissance sculptor, especially in ceramics.
1503 Isabella of Portugal an Infanta of Portugal, by birth, and a Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany, Italy, Spain, Naples and Sicily, Duchess of Burgundy etc. as the spouse of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Maria of Aragon. She served as regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse for long periods
1558 Szymon Szymonowic a Polish Renaissance poet. He was known as "the Polish Pindar."
1561 Anthony Babington convicted of plotting the assassination of Elizabeth I of England and conspiring with the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots. The "Babington Plot" and Mary's involvement in it were the basis of the treason charges against her which led to her execution
1601 Alvise Contarini the 106th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on August 26, 1676 until his death seven and a half years later. He was the eighth and final member of the House of Contarini to serve as Doge of Venice
1607 Jan Lievens a Dutch painter, usually associated with Rembrandt, working in a similar style.
1621 Serafina of God the founder of seven Carmelite monasteries of nuns in southern Italy. The cause for her canonization has been formally accepted by the Holy See, which has declared her to have lived a life of heroic virtue
1628 Lucrezia Barberini an Italian noblewoman and, by marriage, Duchess of Modena. Born into the Barberini family, she was the last wife of Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena
1632 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek a Dutch tradesman and scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscope and for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology
1668 Petr Brandl a painter of the late Baroque, famous in his time but – due to isolation behind the Iron Curtain – rather forgotten until recently. He was of German-speaking Austrian descent in the bilingual Kingdom of Bohemia. His mother was from Czech peasant family, that lived in Přestanice. According to the Grove Dictionary of Art and other sources, Brandl was born into a craftsman’s family and apprenticed around 1683–1688 to Kristián Schröder
1675 Richard Temple 1st Viscount Cobham a British soldier and Whig politician. After serving as a junior officer under William III during the Williamite War in Ireland and during the Nine Years' War, he fought under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough during the War of the Spanish Succession. During the War of the Quadruple Alliance Temple led a force of 4,000 troops on a raid on the Spanish coastline which captured Vigo and occupied it for ten days before withdrawing. In Parliament he generally supported the Whigs but fell out with Sir Robert Walpole in 1733. He was known for his ownership of and modifications to the estate at Stowe Park and for serving as a political mentor to the young William Pitt
1682 William Aikman (painter) a Scottish portrait-painter.
1712 Joanna Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp a princess of the House of Holstein-Gottorp and later the Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst. She is best known as the mother of Catherine the Great of Russia
1734 Anna Göldi known as the "last witch" in Switzerland. She was executed for murder in June 1782 in Glarus
1739 Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a German princess and composer. She became the duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, by marriage, and was also regent of the states of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach from 1758 to 1775. She transformed her court and its surrounding into the most influential cultural center of Germany
1764 Dorothea von Schlegel a German novelist and translator.
1765 James Mackintosh a Scottish jurist, Whig politician and historian. His studies and sympathies embraced many interests. He was trained as a doctor and barrister, and worked also as a journalist, judge, administrator, professor, philosopher and politician
1767 Jacques Laffitte a French banker and politician.
1775 Bahadur Shah II the last Mughal emperor and a member of the Timurid dynasty. He was the son of Akbar II and Lal Bai, a Hindu Rajput. He became the Mughal emperor when his father died on 28 September 1837. He used Zafar, a part of his name, meaning “victory”, for his nom de plume as an Urdu poet, and he wrote many Urdu ghazals under Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British tried and then exiled him from Delhi and sent him to Yangon in British-controlled Burma
1784 Moses Montefiore a British financier and banker, activist, philanthropist and Sheriff of London. Born to an Italian Jewish family, he donated large sums of money to promote industry, business, economic development, education and health amongst the Jewish community in the Levant , including the founding of Mishkenot Sha'ananim in 1860, the first settlement of the New Yishuv. As President of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, his correspondence with the British consul in Damascus Charles Henry Churchill in 1841-42 is seen as pivotal to the development of Proto-Zionism
1784 Catherine Vorontsov the daughter of Semyon Vorontsov, the Russian ambassador in Britain from 1785, and the only sister of Prince Mikhail Vorontsov, Viceroy of New Russia and Caucasus. She was also a niece of Princess Dashkova, a friend of Catherine the Great and a conspirator in the coup d'état that deposed Czar Peter III and put his wife on the throne
1788 Jacob Gijsbertus Samuël van Breda a Dutch biologist and geologist.
1788 Rafael Urdaneta a Venezuelan General who fought for independence during the Spanish American wars of independence.
1788 Sarah Josepha Hale an American writer and an influential editor. She is the author of the nursery rhyme "Mary Had a Little Lamb". Hale famously campaigned for the creation of the American holiday known as Thanksgiving, and for the completion of the Bunker Hill Monument
1789 Ramon Carnicer a Catalan composer and opera conductor, today best known for composing the National Anthem of Chile.
1789 Michel Félix Dunal a French botanist. He was professor of botany in Montpellier, France. He held the chair of Medical Natural History from 1816 to 1819. The Solanaceous plant genus Dunalia is named after him
1790 József Teleki a Hungarian jurist and historian, who served as the first President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1830 until his death.
1796 David Roberts (painter) a Scottish painter. He is especially known for a prolific series of detailed lithograph prints of Egypt and the Near East that he produced from sketches he made during long tours of the region. These, and his large oil paintings of similar subjects, made him a prominent Orientalist painter. He was elected as a Royal Academician in 1841
1796 August von Platen-Hallermünde a German poet and dramatist. In German he mostly is called Graf Platen
1798 Massimo d'Azeglio an Italian statesman, novelist and painter.
1804 Wilhelm Eduard Weber a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.
1804 Princess Luisa Carlotta of Naples and Sicily a daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies.
1808 Ernst Richter a German musical theorist, born at Großschönau, Saxony.
1808 Bernhard von Cotta a German geologist.
1810 Carl Baermann a clarinetist and composer from Munich, Germany.
1811 Ferdinand Hiller a German composer, conductor, writer and music-director.
1811 Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel a Dutch botanist, whose main focus of study was on the flora of the Dutch East Indies.
1811 Georg August Wallin a Finnish orientalist, explorer and professor remembered for his journeys in the Middle East during the 1840s.
1813 Rafael Campo President of El Salvador 12 February 1856 - 1 February 1858.
1814 Rafael Carrera the president of Guatemala from 1844 to 1848 and from 1851 until his death in 1865. During his military career and presidency, the new nations in Central America faced numerous problems. This led to a rise of caudillos, a term that refers to charismatic populist leaders among the indigenous people. Many regional and national caudillos were interested in power for their own gain. Carrera was an exception as he genuinely took the interests of Guatemala's Indian majority to heart
1814 Eduard Baltzer the founder of the first German vegetarian society.
1820 Eugène Fromentin a French painter and writer.
1820 Santos Gutiérrez a Colombian statesman and soldier, who became president of the Sovereign State of Boyacá, and later elected as president of the United States of Colombia for the term of 1868-1870.
1823 Lodovico Count Corti born at Gambarana, near Pavia.
1826 Léopold Victor Delisle born at Valognes.
1827 George Robinson 1st Marquess of Ripon a British politician who served in every Liberal cabinet from 1861 until the year before his death, which took place forty-eight years later.
1828 Mikhail Chernyayev a Russian general, who, together with Konstantin Kaufman and Mikhail Skobelev, led the Russian conquest of Central Asia under Alexander II.