Born on October 25

1102 William Clito the fourteenth Count of Flanders and titular Duke of Normandy. His surname "Clito" was a Latin term equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon "Aetheling", and the Germanic "Adelinus". Both "Clito" and "Atheling" signified "man of royal blood", or the modern equivalent, "prince"
1268 John I de Balliol a leading figure of Scottish and Anglo-Norman life of his time. Balliol College, in Oxford, is named after him
1330 Louis II Count of Flanders Count of Flanders, Nevers and Rethel from 1346 as well as Count of Artois and Burgundy from 1382 until his death.
1415 John II Count of Nevers a French noble.
1415 Charles I of Albret Constable of France from 1402 until 1411, and again from 1413 until 1415. He was also the co-commander of the French army at the Battle of Agincourt where he was killed by the English forces led by King Henry V
1510 Renée of France the younger surviving child of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany. She was the Duchess of Ferrara due to her marriage to Ercole II d'Este, grandson of Pope Alexander In her later life she became an important supporter of the Protestant reformation and ally of John Calvin
1576 Thomas Weelkes an English composer and organist. He became organist of Winchester College in 1598, moving to Chichester Cathedral. His works are chiefly vocal, and include madrigals, anthems and services
1612 James Graham 1st Marquess of Montrose a Scottish nobleman, poet and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. From 1644 to 1646, and again in 1650, he fought a civil war in Scotland on behalf of the King and is generally referred to in Scotland as simply "the Great Montrose"
1642 Zheng Jing a 17th-century Chinese warlord and Ming Dynasty loyalist. He was the eldest son of Koxinga and a grandson of the pirate-merchant Zheng Zhilong. After the conquest of Taiwan in 1662 by his father, Zheng Jing controlled the military forces in Xiamen and Quemoy on his father's behalf. Upon the death of his father six months later, Zheng Jing contested throne as the King of Taiwan with his uncle, Zheng Shixi. The dispute was resolved in Zheng Jing's favor after he successfully landed an army in Taiwan despite strong opposition by the forces of his uncle. This was followed by Zheng Shixi withdrawing his claim
1667 Louis Frederick I Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt the ruling prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Count of Hohenstein, Lord of Rudolstadt, Blankenburg and Sondershausen from 1710 until his death.
1683 Charles FitzRoy 2nd Duke of Grafton an Irish and English politician.
1692 Elisabeth Farnese Queen of Spain as the wife of King Philip She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent
1709 Jan Wagenaar a Dutch historian, known best for his contributions to "Tegenwoordige staat van nederland" and "Vaderlandsche Historie".
1709 Georg Gebel (the younger) a German musician and composer.
1714 James Burnett Lord Monboddo a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist. He is most famous today as a founder of modern comparative historical linguistics. In 1767 he became a judge in the Court of Session. As such, Burnett adopted an honorary title based on the name of his father's estate and family seat, Monboddo House. Monboddo was one of a number of scholars involved at the time in development of early concepts of evolution. Some credit him with anticipating in principle the idea of natural selection that was developed into a scientific theory by Charles Darwin
1749 Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein. Erik Magnus was Chamberlain to Her Majesty Queen Sophia Magdalena. In 1783 he was appointed chargé d'affaires to the Court of France, and in 1785 he was named Ambassador to France. On 21 January 1786 he married the daughter of the French Minister of Finance Jacques Necker, mademoiselle Anne Louise Germaine Necker, who was to achieve fame as "Madame de Staël"
1755 François Joseph Lefebvre a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and one of the original eighteen Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon.
1757 Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein a Prussian statesman who introduced the Prussian reforms that paved the way for the unification of Germany. He promoted the abolition of serfdom, with indemnification to territorial lords; subjection of the nobles to manorial imposts; and the establishment of a modern municipal system
1759 William Grenville 1st Baron Grenville a British Whig statesman. He served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1806 to 1807 as head of the Ministry of All the Talents
1759 Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg) the second wife of Tsar Paul I of Russia and mother of Tsar Alexander I and Tsar Nicholas I of Russia.
1760 Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren a German historian.
1767 Benjamin Constant a Swiss-French politician and writer on politics and religion. He was the author of a partly biographical psychological novel, Adolphe. He was a fervent liberal of the early 19th century who influenced the Trienio Liberal movement in Spain, the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Portugal, the Greek War of Independence, the November Uprising in Poland, the Belgian Revolution, and Liberalism in Brazil and Mexico
1772 Géraud Duroc a French general noted for his association with Napoleon.
1773 George Stanley Faber an Anglican theologian and prolific author.
1779 Pedro Velarde y Santillán a Spanish artillery captain famous for his heroic death in the Dos de Mayo uprisings against the French occupation of Madrid. He became a popular hero and martyr figure for Spain's subsequent War of Independence from the French Empire
1781 Friedrich von Berchtold a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent.
1782 Levi Lincoln Jr. an American lawyer and politician from Worcester, Massachusetts. He was the 13th Governor of Massachusetts and represented the state in the U.S. Congress. Lincoln's nine-year tenure as governor is the longest consecutive service in state history; only Michael Dukakis , John Hancock and Caleb Strong served more years, but they were not consecutive
1784 Chester Dewey an American botanist, clergyman and educator.:68.
1789 Heinrich Schwabe Samuel Heinrich Schwabe a German astronomer remembered for his work on sunspots.
1790 Robert Stirling a Scottish clergyman, and inventor of the Stirling engine. Stirling was born at Cloag Farm near Methven, Perthshire, the third of eight children. He inherited his father's interest in engineering, but studied divinity at the University of Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow becoming a minister of the Church of Scotland as second charge of the Laigh Kirk of Kilmarnock in 1816. He was Minister of Galston Parish Church from 1824 until 1878
1792 Jeanne Jugan a French woman who became known for the dedication of her life to the neediest of the elderly poor. Her service resulted in the establishment of the Little Sisters of the Poor, who care for the elderly who have no other resources throughout the world. She has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
1795 Karl Wilhelm Ideler a German psychiatrist. He was born in Bentwisch and died in Kumlosen near Wittenberge
1795 John P. Kennedy an American novelist and Whig politician who served as United States Secretary of the Navy from July 26, 1852 to March 4, 1853, during the administration of President Millard Fillmore, and as a U.S. Representative from the Maryland's 4th congressional district. He was the brother of U.S. Senator Anthony Kennedy. He was also the Speaker of the Maryland State assembly and served several different terms in the assembly
1800 Thomas Babington Macaulay 1st Baron Macaulay a British historian and Whig politician. He wrote extensively as an essayist and reviewer; his books on British history have been hailed as literary masterpieces
1800 Jacques Paul Migne a French priest who published inexpensive and widely distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers, with the goal of providing a universal library for the Catholic priesthood.
1801 Richard Parkes Bonington an English Romantic landscape painter, who moved to France at the age of 14 and can also be considered as a French artist, and an intermediary bringing aspects of English style to France. Becoming after his very early death one of the most influential British artists of his time, the facility of his style was inspired by the old masters, yet was entirely modern in its application. His landscapes were mostly of coastal scenes, with a low horizon and large sky, showing a brilliant handling of light and atmosphere. He also painted small historical cabinet paintings in a freely-handled version of the Troubadour style
1802 Joseph Montferrand a French-Canadian logger, strong man and hero of the working man, who was the inspiration for the legendary Ottawa Valley figure Big Joe Mufferaw.
1806 Max Stirner a German philosopher. He is often seen as one of the forerunners of nihilism, existentialism, postmodernism, and anarchism, especially of individualist anarchism. Stirner's main work is The Ego and Its Own, also known as The Ego and His Own. This work was first published in 1845 in Leipzig, and has since appeared in numerous editions and translations
1811 C. F. W. Walther the first President of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod and its most influential theologian. He is commemorated by that church on its Calendar of Saints on May 7. He has been described as a man who sacrificed his homeland, his health and nearly his life for the freedom to speak freely, to believe freely, and to live freely. He was dedicated to his Church and the faith for those he loved
1811 Évariste Galois a French mathematician born in Bourg-la-Reine. While still in his teens, he was able to determine a necessary and sufficient condition for a polynomial to be solvable by radicals, thereby solving a 350 years-standing problem. His work laid the foundations for Galois theory and group theory, two major branches of abstract algebra, and the subfield of Galois connections. He died at age 20 from wounds suffered in a duel
1814 Prince Louis Duke of Nemours the second son of the future King Louis-Philippe I of France, and his wife Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily. Under the reign of his father from 1830–1848, he was styled as Prince Louis, Duke of Nemours
1815 Camillo Sivori an Italian virtuoso violinist and composer.
1819 Christian August Friedrich Garcke a German botanist who was a native of Bräunrode, Saxony-Anhalt.
1825 Johann Friedrich Julius Schmidt a German astronomer and geophysicist.
1825 Johann Strauss II an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas. He composed over 400 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as "The Waltz King", and was largely then responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century
1825 Joseph Archer Crowe an English consular official and art critic, whose volumes of the History of Painting in Italy, co-written with the Italian critic Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle , stand at the beginning of disciplined modern art history writing in English, being based on chronologies of individual artists' development and the connoisseurship of identifying artist's individual manners or "hands".
1827 Marcellin Berthelot a French chemist and politician noted for the Thomsen-Berthelot principle of thermochemistry. He synthesized many organic compounds from inorganic substances and disproved the theory of vitalism. He is considered as one of the greatest chemists of all time
1832 Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia the fourth son and seventh child of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia. He was the first owner of the New Michael Palace on the Palace Quay in Saint Petersburg
1835 Benjamin C. Truman an American journalist and author; in particular, he was a distinguished war correspondent during the American Civil War, and an authority on duels.
1836 Eugène-Étienne Taché a French Canadian surveyor, civil engineer, illustrator and architect. He devised Quebec's provincial coat-of-arms and motto Je me souviens